These dual system approaches have not given us detailed process models, nor did they succeed in understanding when and why people’s judgments are intuitive or deliberate. In the words of Kruglanski and Gigerenzer such dual-system approaches even “impeded a deeper examination of the psychology of judgment” (p.32). Also, the inclusion of neuroscientific results on the neural correlates of intuitive and rational judgments could not advance a deeper understanding: different authors suggested different brain regions/brain networks to crucially sub-serve intuitive and deliberate judgments (e.g., De Martino et al., 2006; Lieberman, 2000; Kuo et al., 2009; for an overview see Volz & von Cramon, 2008). That is, specific brain regions were associated with intuitive judgments in one study and with deliberate judgments in another.
The aim of the junior research group is thus to foster a deeper understanding of intuitive (and deliberate) judgmental processes.
The immediate and long-term goals of the junior research group are to determine the relationship between intuitive responses in the perceptual domain and those in the judgment- and decision-making domain as well as in the moral domain; to investigate (behaviorally and neurally) the effects of age and of different types of intuition conceived of as personality traits (e.g., Pretz & Brookings, 2009) on intuitive judgments; and ultimately to move toward specific models of the judgmental process by investigating the factors attentional capacity and processing motivation as well as the match between strategies and the structure of the environment – so-called ecological rationality (Gigerenzer et al., 1999).
First, we pursue our research goals via a thorough conceptual clarification of the concept of intuition, which certainly has to include concepts from philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience. Crucially, a differentiation between intuition and emotion and implicit memory is needed.
Second, we believe that the use of imaging techniques could be especially helpful in determining the underlying processes of intuitive judgments. That is, by determining structural features of activated areas as well as their connectivity, additional information about underlying mechanisms (especially those relying on unconsciously applied associations) can be revealed. Exemplary previous research on intuitive judgments in the visual domain is sketched: results from an fMRI (Volz & von Cramon, 2006), MEG (Bar et al., 2006), and an EEG (Luu et al., 2010) study on object recognition, which was made difficult by blurring the visual input, revealed a) activation within the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), i.e., within an area not typically associated with object recognition processes (see graphic); b) that this activation did not serve post-recognition semantic processes, but c) it showed itself to be critical for early facilitation effects, i.e. OFC activation developed earlier than activation in areas traditionally known to sub-serve object recognition processes. Together, it is suggested that the OFC serves as a (pre-conscious) detector of potential content.
- Evans, J. St. B. T. (2008). Dual-processing accounts of reasoning, judgment, and social cognition. Annual Review of Psychology, 59, 255-278.
- Kruglanski, A. W., & Gigerenzer, G. (in press). Intuitive and deliberative judgments are based on common principles. Psychological Review.
- Kahneman, D. (2003). Maps of bounded rationality: Psychology for behavioral economics. American Economy Review, 93, 1449-1475.
- De Martino, B., Kumaran, D., Seymour, B., & Dolan, R. J. (2006). Frames, biases, and rational decision-making in the human brain. Science, 313, 684-687.
- Lieberman, M. D. (2000). Intuition: A social cognitive neuroscience approach. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 109-137.
- Kuo, W.-J., Sjöström, T., Chen, Y.-P., Wang, Y.-H., Huang, C.-Y. (2009). Intuition and deliberation: Two systems for strategizing in the brain. Science, 324, 519-522.
- Volz, K. G., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2008). Can neuroscience tell a story about intuition? In H. Plessner, C. Betsch, & T. Betsch (eds.), Intuition in judgment and decision making. Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Volz, K. G., & von Cramon, D. Y. (2006). What neuroscience can tell about intuitive processes in the context of perceptual discovery. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18, 2077-2087.
- Bar et al. (2006). Top-down facilitation of visual recognition. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, U.S.A., 103, 449-454.
- Luu, P. et al. (2010). Reentrant processing in intuitive perception. PLoS One, 5, e9523.
- Pretz, J. E., & Brookings, J. B. (2009). Development and preliminary validation of the types of intuition scale (TIntS). Poster presented at the Association for Research in Personality. Evanston, IL: July 17-18.
- Gigerenzer, G., Todd, P. M., & The ABC Research Group (1999). Simple heuristics that make us smart. New York: Oxford University Press.