2013

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810 publications found.

2014
 
 
Hübner C., Bosch D., Gall A., Lüthi A., Ehrlich I. (2014) Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience: 8, 64
Publication date: March, 2014
 
Burgalossi A, Brecht M. (2014) Cellular, columnar and modular organization of spatial representations in medial entorhinal cortex. Current Opinions in Neurobiology
Publication date: February, 2014
 
Ray S., Naumann R., Burgalossi A, Tang Q., Schmidt H., Brecht M. (2014) Grid-layout and Theta-modulation of Layer 2 Pyramidal Neurons in Medial Entorhinal Cortex. Science
Publication date: January, 2014
All authors contributed equally.

 
Senn V., Wolff S. B. E., Herry C., Grenier F., Ehrlich I., Gründemann J., Fadok J., Müller C., Letzkus J.J., Lüthi A. (2014) Long-range connectivity defines behavioral specificity of amygdala neurons Neuron 81: 428-437
Publication date: January, 2014
2013
 
 
Brecht M., Ray S., Burgalossi A, Tang Q., Schmidt H., Naumann R. (2013) An isomorphic mapping hypothesis of the grid representation. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci.
Publication date: December, 2013
 
Baden T., Euler T. (2013) Early Vision: Where (Some of) the Magic Happens. Curr Biol 23(24):R1096-R1098
Publication date: December, 2013
 
Schindler A., Herdener M., Bartels A. (2013) Coding of Melodic Gestalt in Human Auditory Cortex. Cerebral Cortex
Publication date: December, 2013
 
David N., Schultz J., Milne E., Schunke O., Schöttle D., Münchau A., Siegel M., Vogeley K., Engel A. K. (2013) Right Temporoparietal Gray Matter Predicts Accuracy of Social Perception in the Autism Spectrum J Autism Dev Disord
Publication date: December, 2013
 
Baden T., Schubert T., Chang L., Wei T., Zaichuk, M., Wissinger B., Euler T. (2013) A Tale of Two Retinal Domains: Near Optimal Sampling of Achromatic Contrasts in Natural Scenes Through Asymmetric Photoreceptor Distribution. Neuron 80(5):1206-1217, doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.09.030
Publication date: December, 2013
1st and 2nd author contributed equally. _
 
Mutter M., Münch T.A. (2013) Strategies for expanding the operational range of channelrhodopsin in optogenetic vision. PLOS ONE
Publication date: November, 2013
Some hereditary diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa, lead to blindness due to the death of photoreceptors, though the rest of the visual system might be only slightly affected. Optogenetics is a promising tool for restoring vision after retinal degeneration. In optogenetics, light-sensitive ion channels ("channelrhodopsins") are expressed in neurons so that the neurons can be activated by light. Currently existing variants of channelrhodopsin – engineered for use in neurophysiological research – do not necessarily support the goal of vision restoration optimally, due to two factors: First, the nature of the light stimulus is fundamentally different in "optogenetic vision" compared to "optogenetic neuroscience". Second, the retinal target neurons have specific properties that need to be accounted for, e.g. most retinal neurons are non-spiking. In this study, by using a computational model, we investigate properties of channelrhodopsin that might improve successful vision restoration. We pay particular attention to the operational brightness range and suggest strategies that would allow optogenetic vision over a wider intensity range than currently possible, spanning the brightest 5 orders of naturally occurring luminance. We also discuss the biophysical limitations of channelrhodopsin, and of the expressing cells, that prevent further expansion of this operational range, and we suggest design strategies for optogenetic tools which might help overcoming these limitations. Furthermore, the computational model used for this study is provided as an interactive tool for the research community.
 
Becker, H. G.T., Haarmeier T., Tatagiba M., Gharabaghi A. (2013) Electrical Stimulation of the Human Homolog of the Medial Superior Temporal Area Induces Visual Motion Blindness Journal of Neuroscience
Publication date: November, 2013
 
Gerdjikov T.V., Haiss F., Rodriguez-Sierra, O., Schwarz C. (2013) Rhythmic whisking area (RW) in rat primary motor cortex: an internal monitor of movement-related signals? J. Neurosci. 33:14193–14204
Publication date: November, 2013
 
Waiblinger C., Brugger D., Schwarz C. (2013) Vibrotactile discrimination in the rat whisker system is based on neuronal coding of instantaneous kinematic cues Cereb. Cortex doi:10.1093/cercor/bht305
Publication date: November, 2013
Open Access
 
Theis, L., Chagas M. A., Arnstein D., Schwarz C., Bethge M. (2013) Beyond GLMs: A generative mixture modeling approach to neural system identification. PLOS Comp. Biol. 9:e1003356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pcbi. 1003356
Publication date: November, 2013
Open Access
 
Chagas M. A., Theis, L., Sengupta B., Stüttgen M.C., Bethge M., Schwarz C. (2013) Functional analysis of ultra high information rates conveyed by rat vibrissal primary afferents. Front. Neural Circuits 7:190. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00190
Publication date: November, 2013
Open Access
 
Bannert M., Bartels A. (2013) Decoding the Yellow of a Gray Banana. Current Biology
Publication date: October, 2013
 
Hawellek D. J., Schepers I.M., Roeder B., Engel A. K., Siegel M., Hipp J. F. (2013) Altered Intrinsic Neuronal Interactions in the Visual Cortex of the Blind. Journal of Neuroscience 33: 17072-17080
Publication date: October, 2013
 
Zaretskaya N., Bartels A. (2013) Perceptual effects of stimulating V5/MT+ during binocular rivalry are state-specific. Current Biology
Publication date: October, 2013
 
Münch T.A. (2013) Visual Behavior: Mice Run from Overhead Danger. Current Biology 23(20):R925-R927
Publication date: October, 2013
Mice show an innate protective behavior to looming shadows approaching from above: they either run for cover or freeze in place. This newly discovered ‘looming response’ adds to the repertoire of stereotyped behaviors that can be utilized to study visual pathways.
 
Watanabe M., Bartels A., Macke J.H. , Murayama Y., Logothetis N.K. (2013) Temporal Jitter of the BOLD Signal Reveals a Reliable Initial Dip and Improved Spatial Resolution. Current Biology
Publication date: October, 2013
 
Vukelic, M., Bauer, R., Naros, G., Naros, I., Braun C., Gharabaghi A. (2013) Lateralized alpha-band cortical networks regulate volitional modulation of beta-band sensorimotor oscillations NeuroImage
Publication date: October, 2013
 
Beed P., Gundlfinger A., Schneiderbauer S., Song J., Böhm C., Burgalossi A, Brecht M., Vida I, Schmitz D. (2013) Inhibitory Gradient along the Dorsoventral Axis in the Medial Entorhinal Cortex. Neuron
Publication date: September, 2013
 
Benkner B, Mutter M., Ecke G, Münch T.A. (2013) Characterizing Visual Perfomanc in Mice: An Objective and Automated System Based on the Optokinetik Reflex. Behavioral Neuroscience
Publication date: August, 2013
Testing optokinetic head or eye movements is an established method to determine visual performance of laboratory animals, including chickens, guinea pigs, mice, or fish. It is based on the optokinetic reflex which causes the animals to track a drifting stripe pattern with eye and head movements. We have developed an improved version of the optomotor test with better control over the stimulus parameters, as well as a high degree of automation. The stripe pattern is presented on computer monitors surrounding the animal. By tracking the head position of freely moving animals in real time, the visual angle under which the stripes of the pattern appeared was kept constant even for changing head positions. Furthermore, an algorithm was developed for automated evaluation of the tracking performance of the animal. Comparing the automatically determined behavioral score with manual assessment of the animals' tracking behavior confirmed the reliability of our methodology. As an example, we reproduced the known contrast sensitivity function of wild type mice. Furthermore, the progressive decline in visual performance of a mouse model of retinal degeneration, rd10, was demonstrated.
 
Hipp J. F., Siegel M. (2013) Hipp JF and Siegel M (2013) Dissociating neuronal gamma-band activity from cranial and ocular muscle activity in EEG. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 7:1-11
Publication date: July, 2013
 
Nienborg H, Hasenstaub A, Nauhaus I., Taniguchi H, Huang ZH, Callaway EM (2013) Contrast Dependence and Differentiaal Contributions from Somatostatin- and Parvalbumin-Expressing Neurons to Spatial Integration in Mouse V1 Journal of Neuroscience (in press)
Publication date: June, 2013
 
Weiss D., Walach, M., Meisner C., Fritz M., Scholten, M., Breit S., Plewnia C., Bender, B., Gharabaghi A., Wächter T., Krüger R. (2013) Nigral stimulation for resistant axial motor impairment in Parkinson's disease? A randomized controlled trial BRAIN
Publication date: June, 2013
 
Baden T., Godino P.L., Yusuf S., Berens P. (2013) Neurowissenschaften in Afrika – Kooperationen und Perspektiven. Neuroforum 2/13
Publication date: June, 2013
 
Vaiceliunaite A., Erisken S., Franzen F., Katzner S., Busse L. (2013) Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(4):964-72
Publication date: May, 2013
 
Baden T., Euler T., Weckström M., Lagnado L. (2013) Spikes and ribbon synapses in early vision TiNS dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2013.04.006
Publication date: May, 2013
 
Vaiceliunaite A., Erisken S., Franzen F., Katzner S., Busse L. (2013) Spatial integration in mouse primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology, 110(4):964-72
Publication date: May, 2013
 
Schubert T., Hoon M., Euler T., Lukasiewicz P.D., Wong R.O.L. (2013) Developmental regulation and activity-dependent maintenance of GABAergic presynaptic inhibition onto rod bipolar cell axonal terminals. Neuron 78(1):124-137, 10.1016/j.neuron.2013.01.037
Publication date: April, 2013
1st and 2nd author contributed equally. _
 
Puller C., Ivanova E., Euler T., Haverkamp S., Schubert T. (2013) OFF bipolar cells express distinct types of dendritic glutamate receptors in the mouse retina. Neurosci 243:136-48. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.03.054
Publication date: April, 2013
 
Katzner S., Weigelt S. (2013) Visual cortical networks: of mice and men. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 23(2):202-6.
Publication date: April, 2013
 
Schuepbach, W.M.M., Knudsen, K., Volkmann, J., Krack, P., Timmermann, L., Hälbig, T.D., Hesekamp, H., Navarro, S.M., Meier, N., Falk, D., Mehdorn, M., Paschen, S., Maarouf, M., Barbe, M.T., Fink, G.R., Kupsch A., Gruber D., Schneider GH., Seigneuret, E., Kistner, A., Chaynes, P., Ory-Magne, F., Brefel Courbon, C., Vesper, J., Schnitzler, A., Wojtecki, L., Houeto, J.-L., Bataille, B., Maltête, D., Damier, P., Raoul, S., Sixel-Doering, F., Hellwig D., Gharabaghi A., Krüger R., Pinsker, M.O., Amtage, F., Régis, J.-M., Witjas, T., Thobois, S., Mertens, P., Kloss, M., Hartmann, A., Oertel, W.H., Post, B., Speelman, H., Agid, Y., Schade-Brittinger, C., Deutschl, G. (2013) Neurostimulation for Parkinson's Disease with Early Motor Complications The New England Journal of Medicine
Publication date: February, 2013
 
Chang L., Breuninger T., Euler T. (2013) Chromatic Coding from Cone-type Unselective Circuits in the Mouse Retina Neuron 77, 559–571
Publication date: February, 2013
 
Zaretskaya N., Anstis S., Bartels A. (2013) Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt. Journal of Neuroscience
Publication date: January, 2013
 
Theis, L., J. Sohl-Dickstein, Bethge M. (2013) Training sparse natural image models with a fast Gibbs sampler of an extended state space Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 26
Publication date: January, 2013
 
Baden T., Berens P., Bethge M., Euler T. (2013) Spikes in Mammalian Bipolar Cells Support Temporal Layering of the Inner Retina. Curr Biol 23(1):48-52. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2012.11.006. Epub 2012 Dec 13.
Publication date: January, 2013
 
Feldmeyer, D., Brecht, M., Helmchen, F., Petersen, C.C.H., Poulet, J., Staiger, J., Luhmann, H., Schwarz C. (2013) Barrel cortex function. Progress in Neurobiology 103: 3–27
Publication date: 2013
Open Access
 
Schindler A., Bartels A. (2013) Parietal Cortex Codes for Egocentric Space beyond the Field of View. Current Biology
Publication date: 2013
2012
 
 
Theis, L., Hosseini R., Bethge M. (2012) Mixtures of Conditional Gaussian Scale Mixtures Applied to Multiscale Image Representations Plos One
Publication date: December, 2012
 
Putzeys, T., Bethge M., Wichmann F.A. , Wagemans, J., Gorris, R. (2012) A New Perceptual Bias Reveals Suboptimal Population Decoding of Sensory Responses Plos Computational Biology
Publication date: December, 2012
 
Berens P., Ecker A.S., Chapelle O., Cotton R.J., W. J. Ma, Bethge M., Tolias A.S. (2012) A fast and simple population code for orientation in primate V1 Journal of Neuroscience
Publication date: December, 2012
 
Walter, A., Murguialday A.R., Spüler, M., Naros, G., Leão, M.T., Gharabaghi A., Rosenstiel W., Birbaumer N., Bogdan M. (2012) Coupling BCI and cortical stimulation for brain-state-dependent stimulation: methods for spectral estimation in the presence of stimulation after-effects Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Publication date: November, 2012
 
Katzner S., Treue S., Busse L. (2012) Improving behavioral performance under full attention by adjusting response criteria to changes in stimulus predictability. Journal of Vision, 12(10), article 1, doi: 10.1167/12.10.1
Publication date: November, 2012
 
Okun M., Yger P., Marguet, S.L., Gerard-Mercier F., Benucci A., Katzner S., Busse L., Carandini M., Harris K.D. (2012) Population Rate Dynamics and Multineuron Firing Patterns in Sensory Cortex The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(48):17108–17119
Publication date: November, 2012
 
Okun M., Yger P., Marguet, S.L., Gerard-Mercier F., Benucci A., Katzner S., Busse L., Carandini M., Harris K.D. (2012) Population Rate Dynamics and Multineuron Firing Patterns in Sensory Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(48):17108–17119.
Publication date: November, 2012
 
Katzner S., Treue S., Busse L. (2012) Improving behavioral performance under full attention by adjusting response criteria to changes in stimulus predictability. Journal of Vision, 12(10), article 1, doi: 10.1167/12.10.1
Publication date: September, 2012
 
Euler T., Hausselt S.E. (2012) Wie die Netzhaut die Richtung von Bewegungen berechnet (Computation of motion direction in the vertebrate retina) Neuroforum 3/12 234-245, DOI 10.1007/s13295-012-0033-x
Publication date: September, 2012
English version ->
 
Weiss D., Brockmann K., Srulijes K., Meisner C., Klotz R., Reinbold S., Hauser AK., Schulte C., Berg D., Gasser T., Plewnia C., Gharabaghi A., Breit S., Wächter T., Krüger R. (2012) Long-term follow-up of subthalamic nucleus stimulation in glucocerebrosidase-associated Parkinson's disease J Neurol. 2012 Sep;259(9):1970-2. Epub 2012 Mar 17. PubMed PMID: 22427207.
Publication date: September, 2012
 
Lepski G., Arévalo A., Valle AC., Ballester G., Gharabaghi A. (2012) Increased coherence among striatal regions in the theta range during attentive wakefulness Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012 Aug;45(8):763-70. Epub 2012 Jun 28. PubMed PMID: 22735177.
Publication date: August, 2012
 
Erdmann E., Rupprecht V., Matthews E., Kukley M., Schoch S., Dietrich D. (2012) Depression of Release by mGluR8 Alters Ca2+ Dependence of Release Machinery. Cereb Cortex. 22(7):1498-509.
Publication date: July, 2012
 
Bartels A. (2012) Oxytocin and the Social Brain: Beware the Complexity. Neuropsychopharmacology 37: 1795-1796
Publication date: July, 2012
 
Herfst L., Burgalossi A, Haskic K., Tukker J.J., Schmidt M., Brecht M. (2012) Friction-based stabilization of juxtacellular recordings in freely moving rats. J Neurophysiol.
Publication date: July, 2012
 
Burgalossi A, Jung S., Man K.N., Nair R., Jockusch W.J., Wojcik S.M., Brose N., Rhee J.S. (2012) Analysis of neurotransmitter release mechanisms by photolysis of caged Ca²? in an autaptic neuron culture system. Nat Protoc.
Publication date: June, 2012
 
Valverde-Salzmann M.F., Bartels A., Logothetis N.K., Schüz A. (2012) Color Blobs in Cortical Areas V1 and V2 of the New World Monkey Callithrix jacchus, Revealed by Non-Differential Optical Imaging. Journal of Neuroscience 32(23) 7881-7894.
Publication date: June, 2012
 
Katzner S., Miller J. (2012) Response-Level Probability Effects on Reaction Time: Now You See Them, Now You Don’t. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 65(5):865-86.
Publication date: May, 2012
 
Wei T., Schubert T., Paquet-Durand F., Tanimoto N., Chang L., Koeppen K., Ott T., Griesbeck O., Seeliger M.W., Euler T., Wissinger B. (2012) Light-Driven Calcium Signals in Mouse Cone Photoreceptors. J Neurosci 32(20): 6981-6994
Publication date: May, 2012
 
Slezak M, Grosche A, Niemiec A, Tanimoto N., Pannicke T, Münch T.A., Crocker B, Isope P, Härtig W, Beck S.C., Huber G., Ferracci G, Perraut M, Reber M, Miehe M, Demais V, Lévêque C, Metzger D, Szklarczyk K, Przewlocki R, Seeliger M.W., Sage-Ciocca D, Hirrlinger J, Reichenbach A, Reibel S, Pfrieger FW (2012) Relevance of exocytotic glutamate release from retinal glia. Neuron
Publication date: May, 2012
Glial cells release molecules that influence brain development, function, and disease. Calcium-dependent exocytosis has been proposed as potential release mechanism in astroglia, but the physiological relevance of “gliotransmission” in vivo remains controversial. We focused on the impact of glial exocytosis on sensory transduction in the retina. To this end, we generated transgenic mice to block exocytosis by Cre recombinase-dependent expression of the clostridial botulinum neurotoxin serotype B light chain, which cleaves vesicle-associated membrane protein 1-3. Ubiquitous and neuronal toxin expression caused perinatal lethality and a reduction of synaptic transmission thus validating transgene function. Toxin expression in Müller cells inhibited vesicular glutamate release and impaired glial volume regulation but left retinal histology and visual processing unaffected. Our model to study gliotransmission in vivo reveals specific functions of exocytotic glutamate release in retinal glia.
 
Hipp J. F., Hawellek D. J., Corbetta M, Siegel M., Engel A. K. (2012) Large-scale cortical correlation structure of spontaneous oscillatory activity. Nature Neuroscience doi:10.1038/nn.3101
Publication date: May, 2012
 
Auferkorte O.N., Baden T., Kaushalya S.K., Zabouri N., Rudolph U., Haverkamp S., Euler T. (2012) GABAA Receptors Containing the a2 Subunit Are Critical for Direction-Selective Inhibition in the Retina. PLoS ONE 7(4): e35109
Publication date: April, 2012
 
Nienborg H, Cohen MR, Cumming B G (2012) Decision-Related Activity in Sensory Neurons: Correlations among Neurons and with Behavior. Ann Rev Neurosci 2012: 35:463-83
Publication date: April, 2012
 
Tanimoto N., Sothilingam V., Euler T., Ruth P., Seeliger M.W., Schubert T. (2012) BK Channels Mediate Pathway-Specific Modulation of Visual Signals in the In Vivo Mouse Retina. J Neurosci 32(14):4861–4866
Publication date: April, 2012
 
Surges R., Kukley M., Brewster A., Rüschenschmidt C., Schramm J., Baram T. Z., Beck H., Dietrich D. (2012) Hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih of dentate gyrus granule cells is upregulated in human and rat temporal lobe epilepsy. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 420(1):156-60.
Publication date: March, 2012
 
Fischer E., Bülthoff H.H., Logothetis N.K., Bartels A. (2012) Human areas V3A and V6 compensate for self-induced planar visual motion. Neuron, 73(6) p.1228-1240
Publication date: March, 2012
 
Siegel M., Donner T. H., Engel A. K. (2012) Spectral fingerprints of large-scale neuronal interactions. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 13:121-134
Publication date: January, 2012
 
Stoewer S., Goense J., Keliris G.A., Bartels A., Logothetis N.K., Duncan J., Sigala N. (2012) An analysis approach for high-field FMRI data from awake non-human primates. PLoS one, 7(1): Epub e29697
Publication date: January, 2012
 
Berens P., Logothetis N.K., Tolias A.S. (2012) Local field potentials, BOLD and spiking activity: Relationships and physiological mechanisms Visual population codes – towards a common multivariate framework for cell recording and functional imaging, MIT Press
Publication date: 2012
 
Nauhaus I., Busse L., Ringach D.L., Carandini M. (2012) Robustness of traveling waves in ongoing activity of visual cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 32(9):3088–3094
Publication date: 2012
 
Papageorgiou E, Hardiess G, Ackermann H., Wiethölter H, Dietz K, Mallot, H. A., Schiefer U (2012) Collision avoidance in persons with homonymous visual field defects under virtual reality conditions Vision Research 52:20-30
Publication date: 2012
2011
 
 
Supp G.G., Siegel M., Hipp J. F., Engel A. K. (2011) Cortical Hypersynchrony Predicts Breakdown of Sensory Processing during Loss of Consciousness. Current Biology 21:1988-1993
Publication date: December, 2011
 
Ince R.A.A., Mazzoni A., Bartels A., Logothetis N.K., Panzeri S. (2011) A novel test to determine the significance of neural selectivity to single and multiple potentially correlated stimulus features. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, Epub ahead 1-17
Publication date: November, 2011
 
Ilg W., Timmann D. (2011) Overview of the general management of cerebellar disorders Handbook of the Cerebellum and Cerebellar Disorders. Editors: Manto M, Gruol D, Schmahmann J, Koibuchi N, Rossi F
Publication date: November, 2011
 
Stüttgen M.C., Schwarz C., Jäkel F. (2011) Mapping spikes to sensations Front.Neurosci. 5:125
Publication date: November, 2011
 
Wilke M., Pieper T., Lindner K., Dushe T., Staudt M., Grodd W., Holthausen H., Krägeloh-Mann I. (2011) Clinical functional MRI of the language domain in children with epilepsy. Hum Brain Mapp. 32(11):1882-93. doi: 10.1002/hbm.21156.
Publication date: November, 2011
Functional MRI (fMRI) for the assessment of language functions is increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients with epilepsy. Termed 'clinical fMRI,' such an approach is also feasible in children who may display specific patterns of language reorganization. This study was aimed at assessing language reorganization in pediatric epilepsy patients, using fMRI. We studied 26 pediatric epilepsy patients (median age, 13.05 years; range, 5.6-18.7 years) and
23 healthy control children (median age, 9.37 years; range, 6.2-15.4 years), using two child-friendly fMRI tasks and adapted data-processing streams. Overall, 81 functional series could be analyzed. Reorganization seemed to occur primarily in homotopic regions in the contralateral hemisphere, but lateralization in the
frontal as well as in the temporal lobes was significantly different between patients and controls. The likelihood to find atypical language organization was significantly higher in patients. Additionally, we found significantly stronger activation in the healthy controls in a primarily passive task, suggesting a
systematic confounding influence of antiepileptic medication. The presence of a focal cortical dysplasia was significantly associated with atypical language lateralization. We conclude that important confounds need to be considered and that the pattern of language reorganization may be distinct from the patterns seen in later-onset epilepsy.
 
Rzesnitzek L., Wächter T., Krüger R., Gharabaghi A., Plewnia C. (2011) Suppression of extrapyramidal side effects of doxepin by thalamic deep brain stimulation for Tourette syndrome. Neurology. 2011 Nov 1;77(18):1708-9. PubMed PMID: 22042798.
Publication date: November, 2011
 
Hafed Z.M., Lovejoy L.P., Krauzlis R. J. (2011) Modulation of Microsaccades in Monkey during a Covert Visual Attention Task. J Neurosci. 31(43):15219-30.
Publication date: October, 2011
The use of awake, fixating monkeys in neuroscience has allowed significant advances in understanding numerous brain functions. However, fixation is an active process, with the occurrence of incessant eye movements, including rapid ones called microsaccades. Even though microsaccades have been shown to be modulated by stimulus and cognitive processes in humans, it is not known to what extent these results are similar in monkeys or why they occur. Here, we analyzed the stimulus-, context-, and attention-related changes in microsaccades while monkeys performed a challenging visual attention task. The distributions of microsaccade times were highly stereotypical across thousands of trials in the task. Moreover, in epochs of the task in which animals anticipated the occurrence of brief stimulus probes, microsaccade frequency decreased to a rate of less than one movement per second even on long multisecond trials. These effects were explained by the observation that microsaccades occurring at the times of the brief probes were sometimes associated with reduced perceptual performance. Microsaccade directions also exhibited temporal modulations related to the attentional demands of the task, like earlier studies in humans, and were more likely to be directed toward an attended location on successfully performed trials than on unsuccessfully completed ones. Our results show that microsaccades in nonhuman primates are correlated with the allocation of stimulus-evoked and sustained covert attention. We hypothesize that involvement of the superior colliculus in microsaccade generation and attentional allocation contributes to these observations. More importantly, our results clarify the potential role of these eye movements in modifying behavior and neural activity.
 
Cavusoglu M., Bartels A., Yesilyurt B., Uludag K. (2011) Retinotopic maps and hemodynamic delays in the human visual cortex measured using arterial spin labeling. NeuroImage, 59(4):4044-4054
Publication date: October, 2011
 
Conzelmann M, Offenburger S.L., Asadulina A, Keller T, Münch T.A., Jékely G (2011) Neuropeptides regulate swimming depth of Platynereis larvae PNAS
Publication date: October, 2011
Cilia-based locomotion is the major form of locomotion for microscopic planktonic organisms in the ocean. Given their negative buoyancy, these organisms must control ciliary activity to maintain an appropriate depth. The neuronal bases of depth regulation in ciliary swimmers are unknown. To gain insights into depth regulation we studied ciliary locomotor control in the planktonic larva of the marine annelid, Platynereis. We found several neuropeptides expressed in distinct sensory neurons that innervate locomotor cilia. Neuropeptides altered ciliary beat frequency and the rate of calcium-evoked ciliary arrests. These changes influenced larval orientation, vertical swimming, and sinking, resulting in upward or downward shifts in the steady-state vertical distribution of larvae. Our findings indicate that Platynereis larvae have depth-regulating peptidergic neurons that directly translate sensory inputs into locomotor output on effector cilia. We propose that the simple circuitry found in these ciliated larvae represents an ancestral state in nervous system evolution.
 
Eichhoff G., Garaschuk O. (2011) Two-photon imaging of neural networks in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Cold Spring Harb Protoc. 2011(10):1206-16. doi: 10.1101/pdb.prot065789.
Publication date: October, 2011
In humans, Alzheimer's disease (AD) develops over many years. It comprises a chain of subtle yet irreversible alterations in brain function, finally leading to impairment of memory and cognition. Presymptomatic and thus invisible in humans, these alterations can be studied in the animal models of AD. Mouse models of the disease expressing AD-related proteins with familial mutations reproduce several pathological hallmarks of AD. Although the models do not recapitulate the abundant neuronal loss seen in humans, they offer a unique opportunity to learn more about synaptic and cellular mechanisms underlying the disease (both in their essence and in their temporal sequence) through in vivo analyses of brain function. This, however, requires in vivo monitoring of brain function in aged living animals at both a single-cell and network level. Tools developed over the last several decades can be used to selectively mark and to visualize in vivo many important elements of the diseased brain parenchyma, such as amyloid plaques, individual neurons, and glial and microglial cells. Here we describe a method in which cell-type-specific labeling of neurons and glia is combined with in vivo two-photon calcium imaging and fluorescent labeling of amyloid plaques to study functional properties of cortical circuits in a mouse model of AD.
 
Karnath H.O., Mandler A., Clavagnier S. (2011) Object-based neglect varies with egocentric position. J Cogn Neurosci. 23(10):2983-93.
Publication date: October, 2011
Different reference frames have been identified to influence neglect behavior. In particular, neglect has been demonstrated to be related to the contralesional side of the subject's body (egocentric reference frames) as well as to the contralesional side of individual objects irrespective of their position to the patient (object-based reference frame). There has been discussion whether this distinction separates neglect into body- and object-based forms. The present experiment aimed to prove possible interactions between object-based and egocentric aspects in spatial neglect. Neglect patients' eye and head movements were recorded while they explored objects at five egocentric positions along the horizontal dimension of space. The patients showed both egocentric as well as object-based behavior. Most interestingly, data analysis revealed that
object-based neglect varied with egocentric position. Although the neglect of the objects' left side was strong at contralesional egocentric positions, it ameliorated at more ipsilesional egocentric positions of the objects. The patients showed steep, ramp-shaped patterns of exploration for objects located on the far contralesional side and a broadening of these patterns as the locations of the objects shifted more to the ipsilesional side. The data fitted well with the saliency curves predicted by a model of space representation, which suggests that visual input is represented in two modes simultaneously: in veridical
egocentric coordinates and in within-object coordinates.
 
Sokolov AA., Erb M., Gharabaghi A., Grodd W., Tatagiba M., Pavlova M. (2011) Biological motion processing: the left cerebellum communicates with the right superior temporal sulcus. Neuroimage. 2012 Feb 1;59(3):2824-30. Epub 2011 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 22019860.
Publication date: October, 2011
 
Weiss D., Wächter T., Meisner C., Fritz M., Gharabaghi A., Plewnia C., Breit S., Krüger R. (2011) Combined STN/SNr-DBS for the treatment of refractory gait disturbances in Parkinson's disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial. Trials. 2011 Oct 11;12:222. PubMed PMID: 21989388; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3205029.
Publication date: October, 2011
 
Borst A., Euler T. (2011) Seeing Things in Motion: Models, Circuits, and Mechanisms Neuron 71(6):974-994
Publication date: September, 2011
 
Ecker A.S., Berens P., Tolias A.S., Bethge M. (2011) The effect of noise correlations in populations of diversely tuned neurons Journal of Neuroscience
Publication date: September, 2011
 
Busse L., Ayaz A., Dhruv N.T., Katzner S., Saleem A.B., Schölvinck M.L., Zaharia A.D., Carandini M. (2011) The Detection of Visual Contrast in the Behaving Mouse. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(31):11351–11361
Publication date: August, 2011
 
Busse L., Ayaz A., Dhruv N.T., Katzner S., Saleem A.B., Schölvinck M.L., Zaharia A.D., Carandini M. (2011) The Detection of Visual Contrast in the Behaving Mouse. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(31):11351–11361.
Publication date: August, 2011
 
Bartels A., Vazquez, Y., Schindler A., Logothetis N.K. (2011) Rivalry between afterimages and real images: the influence of the percept and the eye. Journal of Vision, 11(9)
Publication date: August, 2011
 
Juenger H., de Haan B., Krägeloh-Mann I., Staudt M., Karnath H.O. (2011) Early determination of somatosensory cortex in the human brain. Cereb Cortex. 21(8):1827-31.
Publication date: August, 2011
The developing brain possesses a high potential for neuroplasticity. Yet, this
remarkable potential of (re-)organization is not a general principle. It seems to vary among different functional systems. Here, we show that distinct brain structures involved in somatosensory processing are already prenatally determined so that a pre- or perinatally acquired (congenital) brain damage of such
structures results in a persistent somatosensory deficit. Eleven patients with hemiparesis due to congenital cortico-subcortical unilateral stroke who showed versus not showed a somatosensory deficit were contrasted with magnetic resonance imaging lesion-behavior mapping. The brain areas which were typically damaged in
patients with a somatosensory deficit but typically spared in patients without a somatosensory deficit were located in the primary and secondary somatosensory cortex (S1, S2) as well as the inferior parietal cortex directly neighboring S1 and S2. The results argue for an early functional determination of primary and
secondary somatosensory cortex, without substantial capacities for (re-)organization. They demonstrate that cortical damage of these areas cannot be compensated by shifting the functional representation to undamaged parts of the cortex.
 
Diekelmann S., Büchel C., Born J., Rasch B. (2011) Labile or stable: opposing consequences for memory when reactivated during waking and sleep. Nat Neurosci. 14(3):381-6.
Publication date: August, 2011
Memory consolidation is a dynamic process. Reconsolidation theory assumes that reactivation during wakefulness transiently destabilizes memories, requiring them to reconsolidate in order to persist. Memory reactivation also occurs during slow-wave sleep (SWS) and is assumed to underlie the consolidating effect of sleep. Here, we tested whether the same principle of transient destabilization applies to memory reactivation during SWS. We reactivated memories in humans by presenting associated odor cues either during SWS or wakefulness. Reactivation was followed by an interference task to probe memory stability. As we expected, reactivation during waking destabilized memories. In contrast, reactivation
during SWS immediately stabilized memories, thereby directly increasing their resistance to interference. Functional magnetic resonance imaging revealed that reactivation during SWS mainly activated hippocampal and posterior cortical regions, whereas reactivation during wakefulness primarily activated prefrontal
cortical areas. Our results show that reactivation of memory serves distinct functions depending on the brain state of wakefulness or sleep.
 
Fröhlich N., Nagy B., Hovhannisyan A., Kukley M. (2011) Fate of neuron-glia synapses during proliferation and differentiation of NG2 cells. J Anat, 219(1):18-32.
Publication date: July, 2011
 
Buschman T. J., Siegel M., Roy J. E., Miller E. K. (2011) Neural substrates of cognitive capacity limitations. PNAS 108(27): 11252-11255
Publication date: July, 2011
 
Chiang L.Y., Poole K., Oliveira B.E., Duarte N., Sierra Y.A., Bruckner-Tuderman L., Koch M., Hu J., Lewin G.R. (2011) Laminin-332 coordinates mechanotransduction and growth cone bifurcation in sensory neurons. Nat Neurosci. 14(8):993-1000.
Publication date: July, 2011
Laminin-332 is a major component of the dermo-epidermal skin basement membrane and maintains skin integrity. The transduction of mechanical force into electrical signals by sensory endings in the skin requires mechanosensitive channels. We found that mouse epidermal keratinocytes produce a matrix that is inhibitory for sensory mechanotransduction and that the active molecular component is laminin-332. Substrate-bound laminin-332 specifically suppressed one type of mechanosensitive current (rapidly adapting) independently of integrin-receptor activation. This mechanotransduction suppression could be exerted locally and was mediated by preventing the formation of protein tethers necessary for current activation. We also found that laminin-332 could locally control sensory axon branching behavior. Loss of laminin-332 in humans led to increased sensory terminal branching and may lead to a de-repression of mechanosensitive currents. These previously unknown functions for this matrix molecule may explain some of the extreme pain experienced by individuals with epidermolysis bullosa who are deficient in laminin-332.
 
Fischer E., Bülthoff H.H., Logothetis N.K., Bartels A. (2011) Visual motion responses in the posterior cingulate sulcus: a comparison to V5 / MT and MST. Cerebral Cortex, 22(4):865-876
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Stoewer S., Goense J., Keliris G.A., Bartels A., Logothetis N.K., Duncan J., Sigala N. (2011) Realignment strategies for awake-monkey fMRI data. Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 29(10):1390-1400
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Hafed Z.M. (2011) Mechanisms for generating and compensating for the smallest possible saccades. Eur J Neurosci. 33(11):2101-13.
Publication date: June, 2011
Microsaccades are small eye movements that occur during gaze fixation. Although taking place only when we attempt to stabilize gaze position, microsaccades can be understood by relating them to the larger voluntary saccades, which abruptly shift gaze position. Starting from this approach to microsaccade analysis, I show how it can lead to significant insight about the generation and functional role of these eye movements. Like larger saccades, microsaccades are now known to be generated by brainstem structures involved not only in compiling motor commands for eye movements, but also in identifying and selecting salient target locations in the visual environment. In addition, these small eye movements both influence and are influenced by sensory and cognitive processes in various areas of the brain, and in a manner that is similar to the interactions between larger saccades and sensory or cognitive processes. By approaching the study of microsaccades from the perspective of what has been learned about their larger counterparts, we are now in a position to make greater strides in our understanding of the function of the smallest possible saccadic eye movements.
 
Blaschko M.B., Shelton J.A., Bartels A., Lampert C.H., Gretton A. (2011) Semi-supervised kernel canonical correlation analysis with application to human fMRI. Pattern Recognition Letters, 32(11) p.1572-1583.
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Gomez-Rodriguez M., Peters J., Hill J., Schölkopf B., Gharabaghi A., Grosse-Wentrup M. (2011) Closing the sensorimotor loop: haptic feedback facilitates decoding of motor imagery. J Neural Eng. 8(3):036005. Epub 2011 Apr 8.
Publication date: June, 2011
The combination of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) with robot-assisted physical therapy constitutes a promising approach to neurorehabilitation of patients with severe hemiparetic syndromes caused by cerebrovascular brain damage (e.g. stroke) and other neurological conditions. In such a scenario, a key aspect is how to reestablish the disrupted sensorimotor feedback loop. However, to date it is an open question how artificially closing the sensorimotor feedback loop influences the decoding performance of a BCI. In this paper, we answer this issue by studying six healthy subjects and two stroke patients. We present empirical evidence that haptic feedback, provided by a seven degrees of freedom robotic arm, facilitates online decoding of arm movement intention. The results support the feasibility of future rehabilitative treatments based on the combination of robot-assisted physical therapy with BCIs.
 
Gomez-Rodriguez M., Grosse-Wentrup M., Hill J., Schölkopf B., Peters J., Gharabaghi A. (2011) Towards brain-robot interfaces in stroke rehabilitation. IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot. 2011;2011:5975385. PubMed PMID: 22275589.
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Gomez-Rodriguez M., Peters J., Hill J., Schölkopf B., Gharabaghi A., Grosse-Wentrup M. (2011) Closing the sensorimotor loop: haptic feedback facilitates decoding of motor imagery. J Neural Eng. 2011 Jun;8(3):036005. Epub 2011 Apr 8. PubMed PMID: 21474878.
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Acioly MA., Gharabaghi A., Liebsch M., Carvalho CH., Aguiar PH., Tatagiba M. (2011) Quantitative parameters of facial motor evoked potential during vestibular schwannoma surgery predict postoperative facial nerve function. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 Jun;153(6):1169-79. Epub 2011 Apr 1. PubMed PMID: 21455744.
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Weiss D., Breit S., Wächter T., Plewnia C., Gharabaghi A., Krüger R. (2011) Combined stimulation of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and the subthalamic nucleus is effective in hypokinetic gait disturbance in Parkinson's disease. J Neurol. 2011 Jun;258(6):1183-5. Epub 2011 Feb 2. PubMed PMID: 21287187.
Publication date: June, 2011
 
Burgalossi A, Herfst L., von Heimendahl M., Förste H., Haskic K., Schmidt M., Brecht M. (2011) Microcircuits of functionally identified neurons in the rat medial entorhinal cortex. Neuron
Publication date: May, 2011
 
Macke J.H. , Opper, M., Bethge M. (2011) Common Input Explains Higher-Order Correlations and Entropy in a Simple Model of Neural Population Activity Physical Review Letters 106
Publication date: May, 2011
 
Macke J.H. , Gerwinn S., Kaschube M., White L.E., Bethge M. (2011) Gaussian process methods for estimating cortical maps. Neuroimage. 56(2):570-81. Epub 2010 May 15.
Publication date: May, 2011
A striking feature of cortical organization is that the encoding of many stimulus features, for example orientation or direction selectivity, is arranged into topographic maps. Functional imaging methods such as optical imaging of intrinsic signals, voltage sensitive dye imaging or functional magnetic resonance imaging are important tools for studying the structure of cortical maps. As functional imaging measurements are usually noisy, statistical processing of the data is necessary to extract maps from the imaging data. We here present a probabilistic model of functional imaging data based on Gaussian processes. In comparison to conventional approaches, our model yields superior estimates of cortical maps from smaller amounts of data. In addition, we obtain quantitative uncertainty estimates, i.e. error bars on properties of the estimated map. We use our probabilistic model to study the coding properties of the map and the role of noise-correlations by decoding the stimulus from single trials of an imaging experiment.
 
Donner T. H., Siegel M. (2011) A framework for local cortical oscillation patterns. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 15(5): 191-199
Publication date: May, 2011
 
Acioly MA., Ebner FH., Hauser TK., Liebsch M., Carvalho CH., Gharabaghi A., Tatagiba M. (2011) The impact of subdural air collection on intraoperative motor and somatosensory evoked potentials: fact or myth? Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2011 May;153(5):1077-85. Epub 2011 Feb 18. PubMed PMID: 21331476.
Publication date: May, 2011
 
Murguialday A.R., Hill J., Bensch M., Martens S., Halder S., Nijboer F., Schoelkopf B., Birbaumer N., Gharabaghi A. (2011) Transition from the locked in to the completely locked-in state: a physiological analysis. Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 May;122(5):925-33. Epub 2010 Dec 9. PubMed PMID: 20888292.
Publication date: May, 2011
 
Breuninger T., Puller C., Haverkamp S., Euler T. (2011) Chromatic Bipolar Cell Pathways in the Mouse Retina. J Neurosci 31(17):6504–6517
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Barnett-Cowan M., Fleming R.W., Singh M., Bülthoff H.H. (2011) Perceived object stability depends on multisensory estimates of gravity. PLoS One. 6(4):e19289
Publication date: April, 2011
BACKGROUND: How does the brain estimate object stability? Objects fall over when the gravity-projected centre-of-mass lies outside the point or area of support. To estimate an object's stability visually, the brain must integrate information across the shape and compare its orientation to gravity. When observers lie on their sides, gravity is perceived as tilted toward body orientation, consistent with a representation of gravity derived from multisensory information. We exploited this to test whether vestibular and kinesthetic information affect this visual task or whether the brain estimates object stability solely from visual information.
METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In three body orientations, participants viewed images of objects close to a table edge. We measured the critical angle at which each object appeared equally likely to fall over or right itself. Perceived gravity was measured using the subjective visual vertical. The results show that the perceived critical angle was significantly biased in the same direction as the subjective visual vertical (i.e., towards the multisensory estimate of gravity).
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results rule out a general explanation that the brain depends solely on visual heuristics and assumptions about object stability. Instead, they suggest that multisensory estimates of gravity govern the perceived stability of objects, resulting in objects appearing more stable than they are when the head is tilted in the same direction in which they fall.
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Carandini M. (2011) GABA(A) Inhibition Controls Response Gain in Visual Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(16):5931-41
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Carandini M. (2011) GABA(A) Inhibition Controls Response Gain in Visual Cortex. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(16):5931–41.
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Hardiess G, Basten K, Mallot, H. A. (2011) Acquisition vs. memorization trade-offs are modulated by walking distance and pattern complexity in a large scale copying paradigm. PLoS ONE, 6(4) e18494, doi10.1371/journal.pone.0018494
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Münch T.A. (2011) Information Processing: Ganglio Cells .
In: Besharse JC and Bok D (editors) The Retina and Its Disorders, Oxford: Academic Press; 2010. p. 301-308
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Atique B., Erb M., Gharabaghi A., Grodd W., Anders S. (2011) Task-specific activity and connectivity within the mentalizing network during emotion and intention mentalizing. Neuroimage. 2011 Apr 15;55(4):1899-911. Epub 2010 Dec 21. PubMed PMID: 21172444.
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Caria A., Weber C., Brötz D., Ramos A., Ticini L.F., Gharabaghi A., Braun C., Birbaumer N. (2011) Chronic stroke recovery after combined BCI training and physiotherapy: a case report. Psychophysiology. 2011 Apr;48(4):578-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.2010.01117.x. Epub 2010 Aug 16. PubMed PMID: 20718931.
Publication date: April, 2011
 
Berens P., Ecker A.S., Gerwinn S., Tolias A.S., Bethge M. (2011) Reassessing optimal neural population codes with neurometric functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 108(11):4423-8.
Publication date: March, 2011
Cortical circuits perform the computations underlying rapid perceptual decisions within a few dozen milliseconds with each neuron emitting only a few spikes. Under these conditions, the theoretical analysis of neural population codes is challenging, as the most commonly used theoretical tool--Fisher information--can lead to erroneous conclusions about the optimality of different coding schemes. Here we revisit the effect of tuning function width and correlation structure on neural population codes based on ideal observer analysis in both a discrimination and a reconstruction task. We show that the optimal tuning function width and the optimal correlation structure in both paradigms strongly depend on the available decoding time in a very similar way. In contrast, population codes optimized for Fisher information do not depend on decoding time and are severely suboptimal when only few spikes are available. In addition, we use the neurometric functions of the ideal observer in the classification task to investigate the differential coding properties of these Fisher-optimal codes for fine and coarse discrimination. We find that the discrimination error for these codes does not decrease to zero with increasing population size, even in simple coarse discrimination tasks. Our results suggest that quite different population codes may be optimal for rapid decoding in cortical computations than those inferred from the optimization of Fisher information.
 
Christensen A., Ilg W., Giese M.A. (2011) Spatiotemporal Tuning of the Facilitation of Biological Motion Perception by Concurrent Motor Execution. Journal of Neuroscience, 31(9): 3493-3499.
Publication date: March, 2011
 
Theis, L., Gerwinn S., Sinz F.H., Bethge M. (2011) In All Likelihood, Deep Belief Is Not Enough Journal of Machine Learning Research
Publication date: March, 2011
 
Karnath H.O., Rennig J., Johannsen L., Rorden C. (2011) The anatomy underlying acute versus chronic spatial neglect: a longitudinal study. Brain. 134(Pt3):903-12.
Publication date: March, 2011
Our aim was to examine how brain imaging in the initial phase of a stroke could
predict both acute/subacute as well as chronic spatial neglect. We present the first voxel-wise longitudinal lesion-behaviour mapping study, examining acute/subacute as well as chronic performance in the same individuals. Acute brain imaging (acquired on average 6.2 days post-injury) was used to evaluate neglect symptoms at the initial (mean 12.4 days post-stroke) and the chronic (mean 491 days) phase of the stroke. Chronic neglect was found in about one-third of the patients with acute neglect. Analysis suggests that lesion of the superior and middle temporal gyri predict both acute/subacute as well as chronic neglect.
At the subcortical level, the basal ganglia as well as the inferior occipitofrontal fasciculus/extreme capsule appear to play a significant role for both acute/subacute as well as chronic neglect. Beyond, the uncinate fasciculus was critically related to the emergence of chronic spatial neglect. We infer that
individuals who experience spatial neglect in the initial phase of the stroke yet do not have injury to these cortical and subcortical structures are likely to recover, and thus have a favourable prognosis.
 
Siegel M., Engel A. K., Donner T. H. (2011) Cortical Network Dynamics of Perceptual Decision-Making in the Human Brain. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience 5:21
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Gerwinn S., Macke J.H. , Bethge M. (2011) Reconstructing stimuli from the spike times of leaky integrate and fire neurons Frontiers in Neuroscience
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Briggman K. L., Euler T. (2011) Bulk electroporation and population calcium imaging in the adult mammalian retina. J Neurophysiol 105:2601-9, doi:10.1152/jn.00722.2010
Publication date: February, 2011
 
International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium, Nalls M.A., Plagnol V., Hernandez D.G., Sharma M., Sheerin U.M., Saad M., Simón-Sánchez J., Schulte C., Lesage S., Sveinbjörnsdóttir S., Stefánsson K., Martinez M., Hardy J., Heutink P., Brice A., Gasser T., Singleton A.B., Wood N.W. (2011) Imputation of sequence variants for identification of genetic risks for Parkinson's disease: a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies. Lancet. 377(9766):641-9.
Publication date: February, 2011
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for Parkinson's disease have linked two loci (MAPT and SNCA) to risk of Parkinson's disease. We aimed to identify novel risk loci for Parkinson's disease.
METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of datasets from five Parkinson's disease GWAS from the USA and Europe to identify loci associated with Parkinson's disease (discovery phase). We then did replication analyses of significantly associated loci in an independent sample series. Estimates of population-attributable risk were calculated from estimates from the discovery and replication phases combined, and risk-profile estimates for loci identified in the discovery phase were calculated.
FINDINGS: The discovery phase consisted of 5333 case and 12?019 control samples, with genotyped and imputed data at 7?689?524 SNPs. The replication phase consisted of 7053 case and 9007 control samples. We identified 11 loci that surpassed the threshold for genome-wide significance (p
 
Mukovskiy A., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2011) Analysis and design of the dynamical stability of collective behavior in crowds. Journal of WSCG, Vol.19, No.1-3, 69-76.
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Braun C., Eisele E., Wühle A., Stüttgen M.C., Schwarz C., Demarchi G. (2011) Mislocalization of near-threshold tactile stimuli in humans: a central or peripheral phenomenon. Eur. J. Neurosci., 33:499-508.
Publication date: February, 2011
Principles of brain function can be disclosed by studying their limits during performance. Tactile stimuli with near-threshold intensities have been used to assess features of somatosensory processing. When stimulating fingers of one hand using near-threshold intensities, localization errors are observed that deviate significantly from responses obtained by guessing - incorrectly located stimuli are attributed more often to fingers neighbouring the stimulated one than to more distant fingers. Two hypotheses to explain the findings are proposed. The 'central hypothesis' posits that the degree of overlap of cortical tactile representations depends on stimulus intensity, with representations less separated for near-threshold stimuli than for suprathreshold stimuli. The 'peripheral hypothesis' assumes that systematic mislocalizations are due to activation of different sets of skin receptors with specific thresholds. The present experiments were designed to decide between the two hypotheses. Taking advantage of the frequency tuning of somatosensory receptors, their contribution to systematic misclocalizations was studied. In the first experiment, mislocalization profiles were investigated using vibratory stimuli with frequencies of 10, 20 and 100 Hz. Unambiguous mislocalization effects were only obtained for the 10-Hz stimulation, precluding the involvement of Pacinian corpuscles in systematic mislocalization. In the second experiment, Pacinian corpuscles were functionally eliminated by applying a constant 100-Hz vibratory masking stimulus together with near-threshold pulses. Despite masking, systematic mislocation patterns were observed rendering the involvement of Pacinian corpuscles unlikely. The results of both experiments are in favor of the 'central hypothesis' assuming that the extent of overlap in somatosensory representations is modulated by stimulus intensity.
 
Borchers, S., Christensen A., Ziegler, L., Himmelbach, M. (2011) Visual action control does not rely on strangers-Effects of pictorial cues under monocular and binocular vision. Neuropsychologia, 49(3): 556-563.
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Acioly MA., Carvalho CH., Koerbel A., Heckl S., Tatagiba M., Gharabaghi A. (2011) The role of the trigeminocardiac reflex in postoperative hearing function in non-vestibular schwannoma cerebellopontine angle tumors. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Feb;18(2):237-40. Epub 2010 Dec 15. PubMed PMID: 21163655.
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Weiss D., Govindan RB., Rilk A., Wächter T., Breit S., Zizlsperger L., Haarmeier T., Plewnia C., Krüger R., Gharabaghi A. (2011) Central oscillators in a patient with neuropathic tremor: evidence from intraoperative local field potential recordings. Mov Disord. 2011 Feb 1;26(2):323-7. doi: 10.1002/mds.23374. Epub 2010 Oct 13. PubMed PMID: 20945432.
Publication date: February, 2011
 
Hipp J. F., Engel A. K., Siegel M. (2011) Oscillatory synchronization in large-scale cortical networks predicts perception. Neuron. 69(2):387-96.
Publication date: January, 2011
Normal brain function requires the dynamic interaction of functionally specialized but widely distributed cortical regions. Long-range synchronization of oscillatory signals has been suggested to mediate these interactions within large-scale cortical networks, but direct evidence is sparse. Here we show that oscillatory synchronization is organized in such large-scale networks. We implemented an analysis approach that allows for imaging synchronized cortical networks and applied this technique to EEG recordings in humans. We identified two networks: beta-band synchronization (~20 Hz) in a fronto-parieto-occipital network and gamma-band synchronization (~80 Hz) in a centro-temporal network. Strong perceptual correlates support their functional relevance: the strength of synchronization within these networks predicted the subjects' perception of an ambiguous audiovisual stimulus as well as the integration of auditory and visual information. Our results provide evidence that oscillatory neuronal synchronization mediates neuronal communication within frequency-specific, large-scale cortical networks.
 
Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Pomper, J., Thier P., Giese M.A., Casile A. (2011) View-based encoding of actions in mirror neurons of area F5 in macaque premotor cortex. Curr Biol. 21(2):144-8.
Publication date: January, 2011
Converging experimental evidence indicates that mirror neurons in the monkey premotor area F5 encode the goals of observed motor acts [1-3]. However, it is unknown whether they also contribute to encoding the perspective from which the motor acts of others are seen. In order to address this issue, we recorded the visual responses of mirror neurons of monkey area F5 by using a novel experimental paradigm based on the presentation of movies showing grasping motor acts from different visual perspectives. We found that the majority of the tested mirror neurons (74%) exhibited view-dependent activity with responses tuned to specific points of view. A minority of the tested mirror neurons (26%) exhibited view-independent responses. We conclude that view-independent mirror neurons encode action goals irrespective of the details of the observed motor acts, whereas the view-dependent ones might either form an intermediate step in the formation of view independence or contribute to a modulation of view-dependent representations in higher-level visual areas, potentially linking the goals of observed motor acts with their pictorial aspects.
 
Chiovetto E. (2011) The motor system plays the violin: a musical metaphor inferred from the oscillatory activity of the alpha-motoneuron pools during locomotion. Jounal of Neurophysiology (in press).
Publication date: January, 2011
 
Tcheang L., Bülthoff H.H., Burgess N. (2011) Visual influence on path integration in darkness indicates a multimodal representation of large-scale space. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 108(3):1152-7.
Publication date: January, 2011
Our ability to return to the start of a route recently performed in darkness is thought to reflect path integration of motion-related information. Here we
provide evidence that motion-related interoceptive representations (proprioceptive, vestibular, and motor efference copy) combine with visual representations to form a single multimodal representation guiding navigation. We used immersive virtual reality to decouple visual input from motion-related interoception by manipulating the rotation or translation gain of the visual projection. First, participants walked an outbound path with both visual and interoceptive input, and returned to the start in darkness, demonstrating the influences of both visual and interoceptive information in a virtual reality environment. Next, participants adapted to visual rotation gains in the virtual environment, and then performed the path integration task entirely in darkness. Our findings were accurately predicted by a quantitative model in which visual and interoceptive inputs combine into a single multimodal representation guiding navigation, and are incompatible with a model of separate visual and interoceptive influences on action (in which path integration in darkness must rely solely on interoceptive representations). Overall, our findings suggest that
a combined multimodal representation guides large-scale navigation, consistent with a role for visual imagery or a cognitive map.
 
Hefendehl J.K., Wegenast-Braun B.M., Liebig C., Eicke D., Milford D., Calhoun M.E., Kohsaka S., Eichner M., Jucker M. (2011) Long-term in vivo imaging of ?-amyloid plaque appearance and growth in a mouse model of cerebral ?-amyloidosis. J Neurosci. 31(2):624-9.
Publication date: January, 2011
Extracellular deposition of the amyloid-? peptide (A?) in the brain parenchyma is a hallmark lesion of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and a predictive marker for the progression of preclinical to symptomatic AD. Here, we used multiphoton in vivo imaging to study A? plaque formation in the brains of 3- to 4-month-old APPPS1 transgenic mice over a period of 6 months. A novel head fixation system provided robust and efficient long-term tracking of single plaques over time. Results revealed an estimated rate of 35 newly formed plaques per cubic millimeter of neocortical volume per week at 4-5 months of age. At later time points (i.e., in the presence of increasing cerebral ?-amyloidosis), the number of newly formed plaques decreased. On average, both newly formed and existing plaques grew at a similar growth rate of 0.3 ?m (radius) per week. A solid knowledge of the dynamics of cerebral ?-amyloidosis in mouse models provides a powerful tool to monitor preclinical A? targeting therapeutic strategies and eases the interpretation of diagnostic amyloid imaging in humans.
 
Brugger D., Butovas S., Bogdan M., Schwarz C. (2011) Real-time adaptive microstimulation increases reliability of electrically evoked cortical potentials IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., 58:1483-1491
Publication date: 2011
 
Martens S.M., Mooij J.M., Hill N.J., Farquhar J., Schölkopf B. (2011) A graphical model framework for decoding in the visual ERP-based BCI speller. Neural Comput. 23(1):160-82.
Publication date: 2011
We present a graphical model framework for decoding in the visual ERP-based speller system. The proposed framework allows researchers to build generative models from which the decoding rules are obtained in a straightforward manner. We suggest two models for generating brain signals conditioned on the stimulus events. Both models incorporate letter frequency information but assume different dependencies between brain signals and stimulus events. For both models, we derive decoding rules and perform a discriminative training. We show on real visual speller data how decoding performance improves by incorporating letter frequency information and using a more realistic graphical model for the dependencies between the brain signals and the stimulus events. Furthermore, we discuss how the standard approach to decoding can be seen as a special case of the graphical model framework. The letter also gives more insight into the discriminative approach for decoding in the visual speller system.
 
Crooijmans H.J., Gloor M., Bieri O., Scheffler K. (2011) Influence of MT effects on T(2) quantification with 3D balanced steady-state free precession imaging. Magn Reson Med. 65(1):195-201.
Publication date: 2011
Signal from balanced steady-state free precession is affected by magnetization transfer. To investigate the possible effects on derived T(2) values using variable nutation steady-state free precession, magnetization transfer-effects were modulated by varying the radiofrequency pulse duration only or in combination with variable pulse repetition time. Simulations reveal a clear magnetization transfer dependency of T(2) when decreasing radiofrequency pulse
duration, reaching maximal deviation of 34.6% underestimation with rectangular pulses of 300 ?s duration. The observed T(2) deviation evaluated in the frontal white matter and caudate nucleus shows a larger underestimation than expected by numerical simulations. However, this observed difference between simulation and measurement is also observed in an aqueous probe and can therefore not be attributed to magnetization transfer: it is an unexpected sensitivity of derived T(2) to radiofrequency pulse modulation. As expected, the limit of sufficiently long radiofrequency pulse duration to suppress magnetization transfer-related signal modulations allows for proper T(2) estimation with variable nutation steady-state free precession.
 
Buchli J., Stulp F., Theodorou E., Schaal S. (2011) Learning variable impededance control. International Journal of Robotics Research. 30(7):820-33.
Publication date: 2011
 
Fleischer M., Weber-Bargioni A., Altoe M.V.P., Schwartzberg A.M., Schuck P.J., Cabrini S., Kern D.P. (2011) Gold nanocone near-field scanning optical microscopy probes. ACS Nano.5(4):2570-2579
Publication date: 2011
 
Döring S. (2011) Gründe und Gefühle: Zur Lösung „des“ Problems der Moral. In: Hinsch W. and Wingert L., editors. Ideen & Argumente. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter.
Publication date: 2011
 
Baker S., Scharstein D., Lewis J.P., Roth S., Black M.J., Szeliski R. (2011) A database and evaluation methodology for optical flow. Int J Computer Vis. 92(1):1-31.
Publication date: 2011
 
Altintas Y., Verl A., Brecher C., Uriarte L., Pritschow G. (2011) Machine Tool Feed Drives. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology, Vol. 60/2, (accepted for publication).
Publication date: 2011
2010
 
 
Mukovskiy A., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2010) Design of the Dynamic Stability Properties of the Collective Behavior of Articulated Bipeds. Proceedings of 10th IEEE-RAS Int. Conference on Humanoid Robots,( Humanoids 2010): 66-73
Publication date: December, 2010
 
Zaretskaya N., Thielscher A., Logothetis N.K., Bartels A. (2010) Disrupting parietal function prolongs dominance durations in binocular rivalry. Current Biology, 20(23):2106-11.
Publication date: December, 2010
Human brain imaging studies of bistable perceptual phenomena revealed that frontal and parietal areas are activated during perceptual switches between the two conflicting percepts. However, these studies do not provide information about causality, i.e., whether activity reports a consequence or a cause of the perceptual change. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to individually localize four parietal regions involved in perceptual switches during binocular rivalry in 15 subjects and subsequently disturbed their neural processing and that of a control site using 2 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) during binocular rivalry. We found that TMS over one of the sites, the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), prolonged the periods of stable percepts. Additionally, the more lateralized the blood oxygen level-dependent signal was in IPS, the more lateralized the TMS effects were. Lateralization varied considerably across subjects, with a right-hemispheric bias. Control replay experiments rule out nonspecific effects of TMS on task performance, reaction times, or eye blinks. Our results thus demonstrate a causal, destabilizing, and individually lateralized effect of normal IPS function on perceptual continuity in rivalry. This is in accord with a role of IPS in perceptual selection, relating its role in rivalrous perception to that in attention.
 
Besserve M., Schölkopf B., Logothetis N.K., Panzeri S. (2010) Causal relationships between frequency bands of extracellular signals in visual cortex revealed by an information theoretic analysis. J Comput Neurosci. 29(3):547-66.
Publication date: December, 2010
Characterizing how different cortical rhythms interact and how their interaction changes with sensory stimulation is important to gather insights into how these rhythms are generated and what sensory function they may play. Concepts from information theory, such as Transfer Entropy (TE), offer principled ways to quantify the amount of causation between different frequency bands of the signal recorded from extracellular electrodes; yet these techniques are hard to apply to real data. To address the above issues, in this study we develop a method to compute fast and reliably the amount of TE from experimental time series of extracellular potentials. The method consisted in adapting efficiently the calculation of TE to analog signals and in providing appropriate sampling bias corrections. We then used this method to quantify the strength and significance of causal interaction between frequency bands of field potentials and spikes recorded from primary visual cortex of anaesthetized macaques, both during spontaneous activity and during binocular presentation of naturalistic color movies. Causal interactions between different frequency bands were prominent when considering the signals at a fine (ms) temporal resolution, and happened with a very short (ms-scale) delay. The interactions were much less prominent and significant at coarser temporal resolutions. At high temporal resolution, we found strong bidirectional causal interactions between gamma-band (40-100 Hz) and slower field potentials when considering signals recorded within a distance of 2 mm. The interactions involving gamma bands signals were stronger during movie presentation than in absence of stimuli, suggesting a strong role of the gamma cycle in processing naturalistic stimuli. Moreover, the phase of gamma oscillations was playing a stronger role than their amplitude in increasing causations with slower field potentials and spikes during stimulation. The dominant direction of causality was mainly found in the direction from MUA or gamma frequency band signals to lower frequency signals, suggesting that hierarchical correlations between lower and higher frequency cortical rhythms are originated by the faster rhythms.
 
Belitski A., Panzeri S., Magri C., Logothetis N.K., Kayser C. (2010) Sensory information in local field potentials and spikes from visual and auditory cortices: time scales and frequency bands. J Comput Neurosci. 29(3):533-45.
Publication date: December, 2010
Studies analyzing sensory cortical processing or trying to decode brain activity often rely on a combination of different electrophysiological signals, such as local field potentials (LFPs) and spiking activity. Understanding the relation between these signals and sensory stimuli and between different components of these signals is hence of great interest. We here provide an analysis of LFPs and spiking activity recorded from visual and auditory cortex during stimulation with natural stimuli. In particular, we focus on the time scales on which different
components of these signals are informative about the stimulus, and on the dependencies between different components of these signals. Addressing the first question, we find that stimulus information in low frequency bands (50 Hz), in contrast, is scale dependent, and is larger when the energy is averaged over several hundreds of milliseconds. Indeed, combined analysis of signal reliability and information revealed that the energy of slow LFP fluctuations is well related to the stimulus
even when considering individual or few cycles, while the energy of fast LFP oscillations carries information only when averaged over many cycles. Addressing the second question, we find that stimulus information in different LFP bands, and in different LFP bands and spiking activity, is largely independent regardless of time scale or sensory system. Taken together, these findings suggest that different LFP bands represent dynamic natural stimuli on distinct time scales and together provide a potentially rich source of information for sensory processing or decoding brain activity.
 
Acioly MA., Carvalho CH., Tatagiba M., Gharabaghi A. (2010) The parahippocampal gyrus as a multimodal association area in psychosis. J Clin Neurosci. 2010 Dec;17(12):1603-5. Review. PubMed PMID: 20817470.
Publication date: December, 2010
 
Prsa M., Dicke P.W., Thier P. (2010) The absence of eye muscle fatigue indicates that the nervous system compensates for non-motor disturbances of oculomotor function. J Neurosci. 30(47):15834-42.
Publication date: November, 2010
The physical properties of our bodies are subject to change (due to fatigue, heavy equipment, injury or aging) as we move around in the surrounding environment. The traditional definition of motor adaptation dictates that a mechanism in our brain needs to compensate for such alterations by appropriately modifying neural motor commands, if the vitally important accuracy of executed movements is to be preserved. In this article we describe how a repetitive eye movement task brings about changes in eye saccade kinematics that compromise accurate motor performance in the absence of a proper compensatory response. Surgical lesions in animals and human patient studies have previously demonstrated that an intact cerebellum is necessary for the compensation to arise and prevent the occurrence of hypometric movements. Here we identified the dynamic properties of the eye plant by recording from abducens motoneurons responsible for the required movement and measured the muscle response to microstimulation of the abducens nucleus in rhesus monkeys. The ensuing results demonstrate that the muscular periphery remains intact during the fatiguing eye movement task, while internal sources of noise (drowsiness, attentional modulation, neuronal fatigue etc.) must be responsible for a diminished oculomotor performance. This finding leads to the important realization that while supervising the accuracy of our movements, the nervous system takes additionally into account and adapts to any disruptive processes within the brain itself, clearly unrelated to the dynamical behavior of muscles or the environment. The existence of this supplementary mechanism forces a reassessment of traditional views of cerebellum-dependent motor adaptation.
 
Ciocchi S., Herry C., Grenier F., Wolff S. B. E., Letzkus J.J., Vlachos I., Ehrlich I., Sprengel R., Deisseroth K., Stadler M.B., Müller C., Lüthi A. (2010) Encoding of conditioned fear in central amygdala inhibitory circuits Nature 468: 277-82
Publication date: November, 2010
 
Jucker M. (2010) The benefits and limitations of animal models for translational research in neurodegenerative diseases. Nat Med. 16(11):1210-4.
Publication date: November, 2010
Age-related neurodegenerative diseases are largely limited to humans and rarely occur spontaneously in animals. Genetically engineered mouse models recapitulate aspects of the corresponding human diseases and are instrumental in studying disease mechanisms and testing therapeutic strategies. If considered within the range of their validity, mouse models have been predictive of clinical outcome. Translational failure is less the result of the incomplete nature of the models than of inadequate preclinical studies and misinterpretation of the models. This commentary summarizes current models and highlights key questions we should be asking about animal models, as well as questions that cannot be answered with the current models.
 
Burgalossi A, Jung S., Meyer G., Jockusch W.J., Jahn O., Taschenberger H., O'Connor V.M., Nishiki T., Takahashi M., Brose N., Rhee J.S. (2010) SNARE protein recycling by aSNAP and ßSNAP supports synaptic vesicle priming. Neuron
Publication date: November, 2010
 
Hosseini R., Sinz F.H., Bethge M. (2010) Lower bounds on the redundancy of natural images Vision Research
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Thurman, S.M., Giese M.A., Grossmann, E. D. (2010) Perceptual and computational analysis of critical features for biological motion. Journal of Vision
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Rathbun D.L., Warland D.K., Usrey W.M. (2010) Spike timing and information transmission at retinogeniculate synapses J. Neurosci. 30(41):13558-66
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Eisele Y.S., Obermüller U., Heilbronner G., Baumann F., Kaesar S.A., Wolburg H., et al. (2010) Peripherally applied Abeta-containing inoculates induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis. Science. 330(6006):980-2.
Publication date: October, 2010
The intracerebral injection of beta-amyloid-containing brain extracts can induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis and associated pathologies in susceptible hosts. We found that intraperitoneal inoculation with beta-amyloid-rich extracts induced beta-amyloidosis in the brains of beta-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice after prolonged incubation times.
 
Dahl C.D., Logothetis N.K., Bülthoff H.H., Wallraven C. (2010) The Thatcher illusion in humans and monkeys. Proc Biol Sci. 277(1696):2973-81.
Publication date: October, 2010
Primates possess the remarkable ability to differentiate faces of group members and to extract relevant information about the individual directly from the face. Recognition of conspecific faces is achieved by means of holistic processing, i.e. the processing of the face as an unparsed, perceptual whole, rather than as the collection of independent features (part-based processing). The most striking example of holistic processing is the Thatcher illusion. Local changes in facial features are hardly noticeable when the whole face is inverted (rotated 180 degrees), but strikingly grotesque when the face is upright. This effect can be
explained by a lack of processing capabilities for locally rotated facial features when the face is turned upside down. Recently, a Thatcher illusion was described in the macaque monkey analogous to that known from human investigations. Using a habituation paradigm combined with eye tracking, we address the critical follow-up questions raised in the aforementioned study to show the Thatcher illusion as a function of the observer's species (humans and macaques), the stimulus' species (humans and macaques) and the level of perceptual expertise (novice, expert).
 
Yuan C, Schwab I, Recktenwald F, Mallot, H. A. (2010) Detection of moving obstacles by statistical motion analysis. . Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS 2010), Taipei, Taiwan
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Bartels A., Logothetis N.K. (2010) Rivalry: a time-dependence in eye and stimulus contributions. Journal of Vision, 10(12):3, p.1-14.
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Whittingstall K., Bartels A., Singh V., Kwon S., Logothetis N.K. (2010) Integration of EEG source imaging and fMRI during continuous viewing of natural movies. Magn Reson Imaging. 28(8):1135-42. Epub 2010 Jun 25.
Publication date: October, 2010
Electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) are noninvasive neuroimaging tools which can be used to measure brain activity with excellent temporal and spatial resolution, respectively. By combining the neural and hemodynamic recordings from these modalities, we can gain better insight into how and where the brain processes complex stimuli, which may be especially useful in patients with different neural diseases. However, due to their vastly different spatial and temporal resolutions, the integration of EEG and fMRI recordings is not always straightforward. One fundamental obstacle has been that paradigms used for EEG experiments usually rely on event-related paradigms, while fMRI is not limited in this regard. Therefore, here we ask whether one can reliably localize stimulus-driven EEG activity using the continuously varying feature intensities occurring in natural movie stimuli presented over relatively long periods of time. Specifically, we asked whether stimulus-driven aspects in the EEG signal would be co-localized with the corresponding stimulus-driven BOLD signal during free viewing of a movie. Secondly, we wanted to integrate the EEG signal directly with the BOLD signal, by estimating the underlying impulse response function (IRF) that relates the BOLD signal to the underlying current density in the primary visual area (V1). We made sequential fMRI and 64-channel EEG recordings in seven subjects who passively watched 2-min-long segments of a James Bond movie. To analyze EEG data in this natural setting, we developed a method based on independent component analysis (ICA) to reject EEG artifacts due to blinks, subject movement, etc., in a way unbiased by human judgment. We then calculated the EEG source strength of this artifact-free data at each time point of the movie within the entire brain volume using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA). This provided for every voxel in the brain (i.e., in 3D space) an estimate of the current density at every time point. We then carried out a correlation between the time series of visual contrast changes in the movie with that of EEG voxels. We found the most significant correlations in visual area V1, just as seen in previous fMRI studies (Bartels A, Zeki, S, Logothetis NK. Natural vision reveals regional specialization to local motion and to contrast-invariant, global flow in the human brain. Cereb Cortex 2008;18(3):705-717), but on the time scale of milliseconds rather than of seconds. To obtain an estimate of how the EEG signal relates to the BOLD signal, we calculated the IRF between the BOLD signal and the estimated current density in area V1. We found that this IRF was very similar to that observed using combined intracortical recordings and fMRI experiments in nonhuman primates. Taken together, these findings open a new approach to noninvasive mapping of the brain. It allows, firstly, the localization of feature-selective brain areas during natural viewing conditions with the temporal resolution of EEG. Secondly, it provides a tool to assess EEG/BOLD transfer functions during processing of more natural stimuli. This is especially useful in combined EEG/fMRI experiments, where one can now potentially study neural-hemodynamic relationships across the whole brain volume in a noninvasive manner.
 
Logothetis N.K., Augath M., Murayama Y., Rauch A., Sultan F., Goense J., Oeltermann A., Merkle H. (2010) The effects of electrical microstimulation on cortical signal propagation. Nat Neurosci. 13(10):1283-91.
Publication date: October, 2010
Electrical stimulation has been used in animals and humans to study potential causal links between neural activity and specific cognitive functions. Recently, it has found increasing use in electrotherapy and neural prostheses. However, the manner in which electrical stimulation-elicited signals propagate in brain tissues remains unclear. We used combined electrostimulation, neurophysiology, microinjection and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the cortical activity patterns elicited during stimulation of cortical afferents in monkeys. We found that stimulation of a site in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) increased the fMRI signal in the regions of primary visual cortex (V1) that received input from that site, but suppressed it in the retinotopically matched regions of extrastriate cortex. Consistent with previous observations, intracranial recordings indicated that a short excitatory response occurring immediately after a stimulation pulse was followed by a long-lasting inhibition. Following microinjections of GABA antagonists in V1, LGN stimulation induced positive fMRI signals in all of the cortical areas. Taken together, our findings suggest that electrical stimulation disrupts cortico-cortical signal propagation by silencing the output of any neocortical area whose afferents are electrically stimulated.
 
Vallentin D., Nieder A. (2010) Representations of visual proportions in the primate posterior parietal and prefrontal cortices. Eur J Neurosci. 32(8):1380-7.
Publication date: October, 2010
The primate prefrontal (PFC) and posterior parietal cortices (PPC) have been shown to be cardinal structures in processing abstract absolute magnitudes, such as numerosity or length. The neuronal representation of quantity relations, however, remained largely elusive. Recent functional imaging studies in humans showed that blood flow changes systematically both in the PFC and the PPC as a function of relational distance between proportions. We investigated the response properties of single neurons in the lateral PFC and the inferior parietal lobule (IPL, area 7) in rhesus monkeys performing a lengths-proportion-discrimination task. Neurons in both areas shared many characteristics and showed peaked tuning functions with preferred proportions. However, a significantly higher percentage of neurons coding proportions was found in the PFC compared with the IPL. In agreement with human studies, our study shows that proportions are represented in the fronto-parietal network that has already been implicated for absolute magnitude processing.
 
Pavlova M., Guerreschi M., Lutzenberger W., , Krägeloh-Mann I. (2010) Social interaction revealed by motion: dynamics of neuromagnetic gamma activity. Cereb Cortex. 20(10):2361-7.
Publication date: October, 2010
Perception of dispositions of others revealed by movement is an essential
ingredient of adaptive daily-life social behavior. Brain imaging points to several brain regions involved in visual processing of social interaction represented by motion of geometric shapes. However, temporal interrelations among these regions remain unknown. Keeping in mind that successful visual social
perception depends on intact communication throughout the brain, we focus here on analysis of the induced gamma neuromagnetic response to social interaction revealed by motion. A peak of induced gamma activity of 62 Hz was found at 1 s from the stimulus onset over the right parieto-temporal junction. Two further
enhancements in gamma response of lower frequency of 44 Hz occurred at 1.4 s over the medial prefrontal and posterior temporal cortices in the right hemisphere. Subsequent boosts of 44 Hz were found at 1.6 s over the left temporal and right posterior temporal cortices. For the first time, the findings identify the
cortical network engaged in visual processing of social interaction revealed by motion and help to better understand proper functioning of the social brain circuitry.
 
Acioly MA., Carvalho CH., Koerbel A., Löwenheim H., Tatagiba M., Gharabaghi A. (2010) Intraoperative brainstem auditory evoked potential observations after trigeminocardiac reflex during cerebellopontine angle surgery. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2010 Oct;22(4):347-53. PubMed PMID: 20706143.
Publication date: October, 2010
 
Birbaumer N. (2010) Memory: reconsolidation allows modification of motor memories. Curr Biol. 20(17):R709-10
Publication date: September, 2010
A recent study using non-invasive transcranial magnetic stimulation has revealed how specific brain processing during memory reactivation makes possible the modification of existing memories that is required for motor learning.
 
Gaissert N., Wallraven C., Bülthoff H.H. (2010) Visual and haptic perceptual spaces show high similarity in humans. J Vis. 10(11):2.
Publication date: September, 2010
In this study, we show that humans form highly similar perceptual spaces when they explore complex objects from a parametrically defined object space in the visual and haptic domains. For this, a three-dimensional parameter space of well-defined, shell-like objects was generated. Participants either explored
two-dimensional pictures or three-dimensional, interactive virtual models of these objects visually, or they explored three-dimensional plastic models haptically. In all cases, the task was to rate the similarity between two objects. Using these similarity ratings and multidimensional scaling (MDS) analyses, the perceptual spaces of the different modalities were then analyzed. Looking at planar configurations within this three-dimensional object space, we found that active visual exploration led to a highly similar perceptual space compared to passive exploration, showing that participants were able to reconstruct the complex parameter space already from two-dimensional pictures alone. Furthermore, we found that visual and haptic perceptual spaces had virtually identical topology compared to that of the physical stimulus space.
Surprisingly, the haptic modality even slightly exceeded the visual modality in recovering the topology of the complex object space when the whole three-dimensional space was explored. Our findings point to a close connection between visual and haptic object representations and demonstrate the great degree of fidelity with which haptic shape processing occurs.
 
Wiener J.M., Ehbauer N, Mallot, H. A. (2010) Planning paths to multiple targets: memory involvement and planning strategies. Psychological Research 73:644-658
Publication date: September, 2010
 
Ticini L.F., de Haan B., Klose U., Nägele T., Karnath H.O. (2010) The role of temporo-parietal cortex in subcortical visual extinction. J Cogn Neurosci. 22(9):2141-50.
Publication date: September, 2010
Visual extinction is an intriguing defect of awareness in stroke patients, referring to the unsuccessful perception of contralesional events under conditions of competition. Previous studies have investigated the cortical and subcortical brain structures that, when damaged or inactivated, provoke visual extinction. The present experiment asked how lesions of subcortical structure may contribute to the appearance of visual extinction. We investigated whether lesions centering on right basal ganglia may induce dysfunction in distant, structurally intact cortical structures. Normalized perfusion-weighted MRI was
used to identify structurally intact but abnormally perfused brain tissue, that is, zones that are receiving enough blood supply to remain structurally intact but not enough to function normally. We compared patients with right basal ganglia lesions showing versus not showing visual extinction. In the extinction patients, the contrast revealed cortical malperfusion that clustered around the right TPJ. It seems as if malfunction of this area is a critical aspect in visual extinction not only after cortical lesion but also in the case of subcortical basal ganglia damage. Our results support the idea that a normally functioning TPJ area plays a decisive role for the attentional network involved in detecting of visual stimuli under conditions of competition.
 
Butler J.S., Smith S.T., Campos J.L., Bülthoff H.H. (2010) Bayesian integration of visual and vestibular signals for heading. J Vis. 10(11):23.
Publication date: September, 2010
Self-motion through an environment involves a composite of signals such as visual and vestibular cues. Building upon previous results showing that visual and vestibular signals combine in a statistically optimal fashion, we investigated the relative weights of visual and vestibular cues during self-motion. This experiment was comprised of three experimental conditions: vestibular alone, visual alone (with four different standard heading values), and visual-vestibular combined. In the combined cue condition, inter-sensory conflicts were introduced (? = ±6° or ±10°). Participants performed a 2-interval forced choice task in all conditions and were asked to judge in which of the two intervals they moved more to the right. The cue-conflict condition revealed the relative weights associated with each modality. We found that even when there was a relatively large conflict between the visual and vestibular cues, participants exhibited a statistically
optimal reduction in variance. On the other hand, we found that the pattern of results in the unimodal conditions did not predict the weights in the combined cue condition. Specifically, visual-vestibular cue combination was not predicted solely by the reliability of each cue, but rather more weight was given to the
vestibular cue.
 
Caria A., Sitaram R., Veit R., Begliomini C., Birbaumer N. (2010) Volitional control of anterior insula activity modulates the response to aversive stimuli. A real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry. 68(5):425-32
Publication date: September, 2010
BACKGROUND: A promising new approach to cognitive neuroscience based on real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) demonstrated that the learned regulation of the neurophysiological activity in circumscribed brain regions can be used as an independent variable to observe its effects on behavior. Here, for the first time, we investigated the modulatory effect of learned regulation of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response in the left anterior insula on the perception of visual emotional stimuli.
METHODS: Three groups of participants (n = 27) were tested: two underwent four rtfMRI training sessions receiving either specific (n = 9) or unspecific feedback (n = 9) of the insula's BOLD response, respectively, and one group used emotional imagery alone (n = 9) without rtfMRI feedback. During training, all groups were required to assess aversive and neutral pictures.
RESULTS: Participants able to significantly increase BOLD signal in the target region rated the aversive pictures more negatively. We measured a significant correlation between enhanced left anterior insula activity and increased negative valence ratings of the aversive stimuli. Control groups performing either rtfMRI training with unspecific feedback or an emotional imagery training alone were not able to significantly enhance activity in the left anterior insula and did not show changes in subjective emotional responses.
CONCLUSIONS: This study corroborates traditional neuroimaging studies demonstrating a critical role of the anterior insula in the explicit appraisal of emotional stimuli and indicates the adopted approach as a potential tool for clinical applications in emotional disorders.
 
Weiss D., Wächter T., Breit S., Jacob S.N., Pomper JK., Asmus F., Valls-Solé J., Plewnia C., Gasser T., Gharabaghi A., Krüger R. (2010) Involuntary eyelid closure after STN-DBS: evidence for different pathophysiological entities. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2010 Sep;81(9):1002-7. Epub 2010 Jun 20. PubMed PMID: 20562465.
Publication date: September, 2010
 
Endres D., Oram M. (2010) Feature extraction from spike trains with Bayesian binning: 'Latency is where the signal starts'. Journal of Computational Neuroscience, 29(1-2): 149-169.
Publication date: August, 2010
 
Conrad V., Bartels A., Kleiner M., Noppeney U. (2010) Audiovisual interactions in binocular rivalry. Journal of Vision, 10(10), doi 10.1167/10.10.27.
Publication date: August, 2010
 
Pichon X., Wattiez A.S., Becamel C., Ehrlich I., Boeckaert J., Eschalier A., Marin P., Courteix C. (2010) Disrupting 5-HT(2A) receptor/PDZ protein interactions reduces hyperalgesia and enhances SSRI efficacy in neuropathic pain Mol Ther 18: 1462-70
Publication date: August, 2010
 
Iyer A., Lindner A., Kagan I., Andersen R.A. (2010) Motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal cortex is modulated by subjective absolute value. PLoS Biol. 8(8):e1000444.
Publication date: August, 2010
For optimal response selection, the consequences associated with behavioral success or failure must be appraised. To determine how monetary consequences influence the neural representations of motor preparation, human brain activity was scanned with fMRI while subjects performed a complex spatial visuomotor task. At the beginning of each trial, reward context cues indicated the potential gain and loss imposed for correct or incorrect trial completion. FMRI-activity in canonical reward structures reflected the expected value related to the context. In contrast, motor preparatory activity in posterior parietal and premotor cortex peaked in high "absolute value" (high gain or loss) conditions: being highest for large gains in subjects who believed they performed well while being highest for large losses in those who believed they performed poorly. These results suggest that the neural activity preceding goal-directed actions incorporates the absolute value of that action, predicated upon subjective, rather than objective, estimates of one's performance.
 
Baranauskas, G., Mukovskiy A., Wolf, F., Volgushev, M. (2010) The determinants of the onset dynamics of action potentials in a computational model. The determinants of the onset dynamics of action potentials in a computational model.
Publication date: August, 2010
 
Camara E, Krämer UM, Cunillera T, Marco-Pallarés J, Cucurell D, Nager W, Mestres-Missé A, Bauer P., Schüle R, Schöls L., et al. (2010) The effects of COMT (Val108/158Met) and DRD4 (SNP -521) dopamine genotypes on brain activations related to valence and magnitude of rewards. Cereb Cortex. 20(8):1985-96.
Publication date: August, 2010
People's sensitivity to reinforcing stimuli such as monetary gains and losses shows a wide interindividual variation that might in part be determined by genetic differences. Because of the established role of the dopaminergic system in the neural encoding of rewards and negative events, we investigated young healthy volunteers being homozygous for either the Valine or Methionine variant of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) codon 158 polymorphism as well as homozygous for the C or T variant of the SNP -521 polymorphism of the dopamine D4 receptor. Participants took part in a gambling paradigm featuring unexpectedly high monetary gains and losses in addition to standard gains/losses of expected magnitude while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T. Valence-related brain activations were seen in the ventral striatum, the anterior cingulate cortex, and the inferior parietal cortex. These activations were modulated by the COMT polymorphism with greater effects for valine/valine participants but not by the D4 receptor polymorphism. By contrast, magnitude-related effects in the anterior insula and the cingulate cortex were modulated by the D4 receptor polymorphism with larger responses for the CC variant. These findings emphasize the differential contribution of genetic variants in the dopaminergic system to various aspects of reward processing.
 
Gruber D., Kühn AA., Schoenecker T., Kivi A., Trottenberg T., Hoffmann KT., Gharabaghi A., Kopp UA., Schneider GH., Klein C., Asmus F., Kupsch A. (2010) Pallidal and thalamic deep brain stimulation in myoclonus-dystonia. Mov Disord. 2010 Aug 15;25(11):1733-43. PubMed PMID: 20623686.
Publication date: August, 2010
 
Casile A., Dayan E., Caggiano V., Hendler T., Flash T., Giese M.A. (2010) Neuronal encoding of human kinematic invariants during action observation. Cerebral Cortex, 20(7): 1647-55.
Publication date: July, 2010
 
Mukovskiy A., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2010) Contraction theory as method for the analysis and the design of stability of collective behavior in crowds. Electronic Proc. IADIS Int. Conference on Computer Graphics, Visualization, Computer Vision and Image Processing (CGVCVIP 2010): 47-56
Publication date: July, 2010
 
Baier B., Karnath H.O., Dieterich M., Birklein F., Heinze C., Müller N.G. (2010) Keeping memory clear and stable--the contribution of human basal ganglia and prefrontal cortex to working memory. J Neurosci. 30(29):9788-92.
Publication date: July, 2010
Successful remembering involves both hindering irrelevant information from entering working memory (WM) and actively maintaining relevant information online. Using a voxelwise lesion-behavior brain mapping approach in stroke patients, we observed that lesions of the left basal ganglia render WM susceptible to irrelevant information. Lesions of the right prefrontal cortex on the other hand make it difficult to keep more than a few items in WM. These
findings support basal ganglia-prefrontal cortex models of WM whereby the basal ganglia play a gatekeeper role and allow only relevant information to enter prefrontal cortex where this information then is actively maintained in WM.
 
Vargas-Irwin C.E., Shakhnarovich G., Yadollahpour P., Mislow J.M., Black M.J., Donoghue J.P. (2010) Decoding complete reach and grasp actions from local primary motor cortex populations. J Neurosci. 30(29):9659-69.
Publication date: July, 2010
How the activity of populations of cortical neurons generates coordinated multijoint actions of the arm, wrist, and hand is poorly understood. This study combined multielectrode recording techniques with full arm motion capture to relate neural activity in primary motor cortex (M1) of macaques (Macaca mulatta) to arm, wrist, and hand postures during movement. We find that the firing rate of individual M1 neurons is typically modulated by the kinematics of multiple joints and that small, local ensembles of M1 neurons contain sufficient information to reconstruct 25 measured joint angles (representing an estimated 10 functionally independent degrees of freedom). Beyond showing that the spiking patterns of local M1 ensembles represent a rich set of naturalistic movements involving the entire upper limb, the results also suggest that achieving high-dimensional reach and grasp actions with neuroprosthetic devices may be possible using small intracortical arrays like those already being tested in human pilot clinical trials.
 
Hafed Z.M., Krauzlis R. J. (2010) Microsaccadic suppression of visual bursts in the primate superior colliculus. J Neurosci. 30(28):9542-7.
Publication date: July, 2010
Saccadic suppression, a behavioral phenomenon in which perceptual thresholds are elevated before, during, and after saccadic eye movements, is an important mechanism for maintaining perceptual stability. However, even during fixation, the eyes never remain still, but undergo movements including microsaccades, drift, and tremor. The neural mechanisms for mediating perceptual stability in the face of these "fixational" movements are not fully understood. Here, we investigated one component of such mechanisms: a neural correlate of microsaccadic suppression. We measured the size of short-latency, stimulus-induced visual bursts in superior colliculus neurons of adult, male rhesus macaques. We found that microsaccades caused approximately 30% suppression of the bursts. Suppression started approximately 70 ms before microsaccade onset and ended approximately 70 ms after microsaccade end, a time course similar to behavioral measures of this phenomenon in humans. We also identified a new behavioral effect of microsaccadic suppression on saccadic reaction times, even for continuously presented, suprathreshold visual stimuli. These results provide evidence that the superior colliculus is part of the mechanism for suppressing self-generated visual signals during microsaccades that might otherwise disrupt perceptual stability.
 
Endres D., Földiák P., Priss U. (2010) An Application of Formal Concept Analysis to Semantic Neural Decoding. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 57(3-4): 233-248.
Publication date: July, 2010
 
Bridle S., Balan S. T., Bethge M., Gentile M., Harmeling S., Heymans C., Hirsch M., Hosseini R., Jarvis M., Kirk D., Kitching T., Kuijken K., Lewis A., Paulin-Henriksson S., Schölkopf B., Velander M., Voigt L., Witherick D., Amara A., Bernstein G., Courbin F., Gill M., He A. (2010) Results of the GREAT08 Challenge: An image analysis competition for cosmological lensing. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 405(3), 2044-2061
Publication date: July, 2010
 
Schubert T., Huckfeldt R.M., Parker E., Campbell J.E., Wong R.O.L. (2010) Assembly of the outer retina in the absence of GABA synthesis in horizontal cells. Neural Development 5:15 doi:10.1186/1749-8104-5-15
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Kukley M., Nishiyama A., Dietrich D. (2010) The fate of synaptic input to NG2 glial cells: neurons specifically downregulate transmitter release onto differentiating oligodendroglial cells. The Journal of Neuroscience, 16;30(24):8320-31.
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Volz K.G., Schooler L.J., von Cramon D.Y. (2010) It just felt right: The neural correlates of the fluency heuristic. Consciousness and Cognition.
Publication date: June, 2010
Simple heuristics exploit basic human abilities, such as recognition memory, to make decisions based on sparse information. Based on the relative speed of recognizing two objects, the fluency heuristic infers that the one recognized more quickly has the higher value with respect to the criterion of interest. Behavioral data show that reliance on retrieval fluency enables quick inferences. Our goal with the present functional magnetic resonance imaging study was to isolate fluency-heuristic-based judgments to map the use of fluency onto specific brain areas that might give a better understanding of the heuristic's underlying processes. Activation within the claustrum for fluency heuristic decisions was found. Given that claustrum activation is thought to reflect the integration of perceptual and memory elements into a conscious gestalt, we suggest this activation correlates with the experience of fluency.
 
Hardiess G, Papageorgiou E, Schiefer U, Mallot, H. A. (2010) Functional compensation of visual field deficits in hemianopic patients under the influence of different task demands. Vision Research, 50:1158-1172
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Schubert T., Euler T. (2010) Retinal processing: global players like it local. Curr Biol. 20(11):R486-8.
Publication date: June, 2010
A recent study of a specific type of retinal amacrine cell shows how a single interneuron can implement a large number of parallel feedback circuits, illustrating how highly complex circuits can be generated by a small number of neurons.
 
Bartels A., Goense J., Logothetis N.K. (2010) An Introduction to functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) AND the origin of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. Handbook for Neural Activity Measurement, Cambridge University Press. In print.
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Nienborg H, Cumming B G (2010) Correlations between the activity of sensory neurons and behavior: how much do they tell us about causality? Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 2010: 20:376-81
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Acioly MA., Liebsch M., Carvalho CH., Gharabaghi A., Tatagiba M. (2010) Transcranial electrocortical stimulation to monitor the facial nerve motor function during cerebellopontine angle surgery. Neurosurgery. 2010 Jun;66(6 Suppl Operative):354-61; discussion 362. PubMed PMID: 20514692.
Publication date: June, 2010
 
Mukovskiy A., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2010) Analysis of the global dynamical stability of crowd navigation applying Contraction Theory. Electronic Proceedings of Workshop on Crowd Simulation, 23rd Int. Conference on Computer Animation and Social Agents (CASA 2010), May 31-June 2, 2010
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Siegel M., Donner T. H. (2010) Linking band-limited cortical activity to fMRI and behavior. Oxford University Press
In: M Ullsperger and S Debener (Edt.) Simultaneous EEG and fMRI: Recording, Analysis, and Application.
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Margolis D.J., Gartland A.J., Euler T., Detwiler P.B. (2010) Dendritic Calcium Signaling in ON and OFF Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells. J Neurosci 30:7127-7138
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Garcia M., Gloor M., Bieri O., Wetzel S.G., Radue E.W., Scheffler K. (2010) MTR variations in normal adult brain structures using balanced steady-state free precession. Neuroradiology.
Publication date: May, 2010
INTRODUCTION: Magnetization transfer (MT) is sensitive to the macromolecular environment of water protons and thereby provides information not obtainable from conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Compared to standard methods, MT-sensitized balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) offers high-resolution images with significantly reduced acquisition times. In this study, high-resolution magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) images from normal appearing brain structures were acquired with bSSFP.

METHODS: Twelve subjects were studied on a 1.5 T scanner. MTR values were calculated from MT images acquired in 3D with 1.3 mm isotropic resolution. The complete MT data set was acquired within less than 3.5 min. Forty-one brain structures of the white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) were identified for each subject.

RESULTS: MTR values were higher for WM than GM. In general, MTR values of the WM and GM structures were in good accordance with the literature. However, MTR values showed more homogenous values within WM and GM structures than previous studies.

CONCLUSIONS: MT-sensitized bSSFP provides isotropic high-resolution MTR images and hereby allows assessment of reliable MTR data in also very small brain structures in clinically feasible acquisition times and is thus a promising sequence for being widely used in the clinical routine. The present normative data can serve as a reference for the future characterization of brain pathologies.
 
Macke J.H. , Gerwinn S., White L.W., Kaschube M., Bethge M. (2010) Gaussian process methods for estimating cortical maps Neuroimage
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Basten K, Mallot, H. A. (2010) Simulated visual homing in desert ants natural environments: efficiency of skyline cues. Biological Cybernetics 102:413-425
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Macke J.H. , Wichmann F.A. (2010) Estimating predictive stimulus features from psychophysical data: The decision image technique applied to human faces Journal of Vision
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Busquet P., Nguyen N.K., Schmid E., et al. (2010) CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour in mice independent of deaf phenotype. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 13(4):499-513. Epub 2009 Aug 11.
Publication date: May, 2010
Mounting evidence suggests that voltage-gated L-type Ca2+ channels can modulate affective behaviour. We therefore explored the role of CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels in depression- and anxiety-like behaviours using CaV1.3-deficient mice (CaV1.3-/-). We showed that CaV1.3-/- mice displayed less immobility in the forced swim test as well as in the tail suspension test, indicating an antidepressant-like phenotype. Locomotor activity in the home cage or a novel open-field test was not influenced. In the elevated plus maze (EPM), CaV1.3-/- mice entered the open arms more frequently and spent more time there indicating an anxiolytic-like phenotype which was, however, not supported in the stress-induced hyperthermia test. By performing parallel experiments in Claudin 14 knockout mice (Cldn14-/-), which like CaV1.3-/- mice are congenitally deaf, an influence of deafness on the antidepressant-like phenotype could be ruled out. On the other hand, a similar EPM behaviour indicative of an anxiolytic phenotype was also found in the Cldn14-/- animals. Using electroretinography and visual behavioural tasks we demonstrated that at least in mice, CaV1.3 channels do not significantly contribute to visual function. However, marked morphological changes were revealed in synaptic ribbons in the outer plexiform layer of CaV1.3-/- retinas by immunohistochemistry suggesting a possible role of this channel type in structural plasticity at the ribbon synapse. Taken together, our findings indicate that CaV1.3 L-type Ca2+ channels modulate depression-like behaviour but are not essential for visual function. The findings raise the possibility that selective modulation of CaV1.3 channels could be a promising new therapeutic concept for the treatment of mood disorders.
 
Haefner R., Bethge M. (2010) Evaluating neuronal codes for inference using Fisher information Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 23
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Wühle A., Mertiens L., Rüter J., Ostwald D., Braun C. (2010) Cortical processing of near-threshold tactile stimuli: an MEG study. Psychophysiology. 47(3):523-34.
Publication date: May, 2010
In the present study we tested the applicability of a paired-stimulus paradigm for the investigation of near-threshold (NT) stimulus processing in the somatosensory system using magnetoencephalography. Cortical processing of the NT stimuli was studied indirectly by investigating the impact of NT stimuli on the source activity of succeeding suprathreshold test stimuli. We hypothesized that
cortical responses evoked by test stimuli are reduced due to the preactivation of the same finger representation by the preceding NT stimulus. We observed attenuation of the magnetic responses in the secondary somatosensory (SII) cortex, with stronger decreases for perceived than for missed NT stimuli. Our
data suggest that processing in the primary somatosensory cortex including recovery lasts for /=500 ms, which points to its role in temporal integration and conscious perception of sensory input.
 
Safavi-Abbasi S., González-Felipe V., Gharabaghi A., Talley MC., Bambakidis NC., Preul MC., Samii M., Samii A., Freund H.J. (2010) A functional magnetic resonance imaging study of factors influencing motor function after surgery for gliomas in the rolandic region. World Neurosurg. 2010 May;73(5):529-40. PubMed PMID: 20920938.
Publication date: May, 2010
 
Fleischer F., Giese M.A. (2010) Computational Mechanisms of the Visual Processing of Action Stimuli Perception of the Human Body in Motion.: Findings, Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press.
Publication date: April, 2010
 
St Clair R., Huff M., Seiffert A.E. (2010) Conflicting motion information impairs multiple object tracking. J Vis.10(4):18.1-13.
Publication date: April, 2010
People can keep track of target objects as they move among identical distractors using only spatiotemporal information. We investigated whether or not participants use motion information during the moment-to-moment tracking of objects by adding motion to the texture of moving objects. The texture either remained static or moved relative to the object's direction of motion, either in the same direction, the opposite direction, or orthogonal to each object's trajectory. Results showed that, compared to the static texture condition, tracking performance was worse when the texture moved in the opposite direction of the object and better when the texture moved in the same direction as the object. Our results support the conclusion that motion information is used during the moment-to-moment tracking of objects. Motion information may either affect a representation of position or be used to periodically predict the future location of targets.
 
Coomaraswamy J., Kilger E., Wölfing H., Schäfer C., Kaeser S.A., Wegenast-Braun B.M., Hefendehl J.K., Wolburg H., Mazzella M., Ghiso J., Goedert M., Akiyama H., Garcia-Sierra F., Wolfer D.P., Mathews P.M., Jucker M. (2010) Modeling familial Danish dementia in mice supports the concept of the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(17):7969-74.
Publication date: April, 2010
Familial Danish dementia (FDD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with cerebral deposition of Dan-amyloid (ADan), neuroinflammation, and neurofibrillary tangles, hallmark characteristics remarkably similar to those in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We have generated transgenic (tg) mouse models of familial Danish dementia that exhibit the age-dependent deposition of ADan throughout the brain with associated amyloid angiopathy, microhemorrhage, neuritic dystrophy, and neuroinflammation. Tg mice are impaired in the Morris water maze and exhibit increased anxiety in the open field. When crossed with TauP301S tg mice, ADan
accumulation promotes neurofibrillary lesions, in all aspects similar to the Tau lesions observed in crosses between beta-amyloid (Abeta)-depositing tg mice and TauP301S tg mice. Although these observations argue for shared mechanisms of downstream pathophysiology for the sequence-unrelated ADan and Abeta peptides, the lack of codeposition of the two peptides in crosses between ADan- and Abeta-depositing mice points also to distinguishing properties of the peptides. Our results support the concept of the amyloid hypothesis for AD and related dementias, and suggest that different proteins prone to amyloid formation can drive strikingly similar pathogenic pathways in the brain.
 
Ilg W., Brötz D., Burkhard S., Giese M.A., Schöls L., Synofzik M. (2010) Long-term effects of coordinative training in degenerative cerebellar disease. Movement Disorders
Publication date: April, 2010
 
Karnath H.O., Borchers S., Himmelbach M. (2010) Comment on 'Movement intention after parietal cortex stimulation in humans'. Science. 327(5970):1200, author reply 1200.
Publication date: April, 2010
Desmurget et al. (Reports, 8 May 2009, p. 811) applied direct electrical stimulation (DES) to the human cortex to study the origin of movement intention. Their interpretation assumed that DES causes cortical activation, whereas it is possible that it actually evokes deactivation. The lack of certain knowledge about the true effects of DES limits its use for validation of cognitive models.
 
Münch T.A. (2010) Information Processing: Ganglion Cells .
In: Darlene A. Dartt, editor. Encyclopedia of the Eye, Vol 2. Oxford: Academic Press; 2010. p. 355-362.
Publication date: April, 2010
 
Gerwinn S., Macke J.H. , Bethge M. (2010) Bayesian inference for generalized linear models for spiking neurons Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 4(12)
Publication date: April, 2010
 
Ilg W., Synofzik M., Brötz D., Burkhard S., Giese M.A., Schöls L. (2010) Ataxie-Patienten profitieren von Physiotherapie. Aerztliche Praxis Neurologie Psychatrie (in German)(4): 10-12.
Publication date: April, 2010
 
Huff M., Meyerhoff H.S., Papenmeier F., Jahn G. (2010) Spatial updating of dynamic scenes: tracking multiple invisible objects across viewpoint changes. Atten Percept Psychophys. 72(3):628-36.
Publication date: April, 2010
Research on dynamic attention has shown that visual tracking is possible even if the observer's viewpoint on the scene holding the moving objects changes. In contrast to smooth viewpoint changes, abrupt changes typically impair tracking performance. The lack of continuous information about scene motion, resulting from abrupt changes, seems to be the critical variable. However, hard onsets of objects after abrupt scene motion could explain the impairment as well. We report three experiments employing object invisibility during smooth and abrupt viewpoint changes to examine the influence of scene information on visual tracking, while equalizing hard onsets of moving objects after the viewpoint change. Smooth viewpoint changes provided continuous information about scene motion, which supported the tracking of temporarily invisible objects. However, abrupt and, therefore, discontinuous viewpoint changes strongly impaired tracking performance. Object locations retained with respect to a reference frame can account for the attentional tracking that follows invisible objects through continuous scene motion.
 
Endres D., Schindelin J., Földiák P., Oram M. (2010) Modelling spike trains and extracting response latency with Bayesian binning. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 57(3-4):233-248
Publication date: March, 2010
 
Sato T., Svoboda K. (2010) The functional properties of barrel cortex neurons projecting to the primary motor cortex. J Neurosci. 30(12):4256-60.
Publication date: March, 2010
Nearby neurons, sharing the same locations within the mouse whisker map, can have dramatically distinct response properties. To understand the significance of this diversity, we studied the relationship between the responses of individual neurons and their projection targets in the mouse barrel cortex. Neurons projecting to primary motor cortex (MI) or secondary somatosensory area (SII) were labeled with red fluorescent protein (RFP) using retrograde viral infection. We used in vivo two-photon Ca(2+) imaging to map the responses of RFP-positive and neighboring L2/3 neurons to whisker deflections. Neurons projecting to MI displayed larger receptive fields compared with other neurons, including those projecting to SII. Our findings support the view that intermingled neurons in primary sensory areas send specific stimulus features to different parts of the brain.
 
Stürzebecher AS, Hu J., Smith ES, Frahm S, Santos-Torres J, Kampfrath B, Auer S, Lewin G.R., Ibanez-Tallon I (2010) An in vivo tethered toxin approach for the cell-autonomous inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channel currents in nociceptors J Physiol.
Publication date: March, 2010
 
Sinz F.H., Bethge M. (2010) Lp-nested symmetric distributions Journal of Machine Learning Research
Publication date: March, 2010
 
Gerdjikov T.V., Bergner C.G., Stüttgen M.C., Waiblinger C., Schwarz C. (2010) Discrimination of vibrotactile stimuli in the rat whisker system: behavior and neurometrics. Neuron. 65(4):530-40.
Publication date: February, 2010
Understanding the neural code underlying perception requires the mapping of physical stimulus parameters to both psychophysical decisions and neuronal responses. Here, we employed a novel psychophysical task in head-fixed rats to measure discriminability of vibrotactile whisker deflections. Rats could discriminate 90 Hz from 60 Hz pulsatile stimuli if stimulus intensity covaried with frequency. To pin down the physical parameters used by the rats to discriminate these vibrations, we manipulated stimulus amplitude to arrive at pairs of nondiscriminable stimuli. We found that vibrations matched in intensity (measured as mean absolute velocity), but differing in frequency, were no longer discriminable. Recordings of trigeminal ganglion neurons revealed that the distribution of neurometric sensitivities based on spike counts, but not interspike intervals, matched the rats' inability to discriminate intensity-matched stimuli. In conclusion, we suggest that stimulus mean absolute velocity, encoded in primary afferent spike counts, plays a prominent role for whisker-mediated perception.
 
Herry C., Ferraguti F., Singewald N., Letzkus J.J., Ehrlich I., Lüthi A. (2010) Neuronal circuits of fear extinction Eur J Neurosci 31: 599-612
Publication date: February, 2010
 
Hu J., Chiang L.Y., Koch M., Lewin G.R. (2010) Evidence for a protein tether involved in somatic touch EMBO J
Publication date: February, 2010
 
Stüttgen M.C., Schwarz C. (2010) Integration of vibrotactile signals for whisker-related perception in rats is governed by short time constants: comparison of neurometric and psychometric detection performance. J Neurosci. 30(6):2060-9.
Publication date: February, 2010
Rats explore environments by sweeping their whiskers across objects and surfaces. Both sensor movement and repetitive sweeping typical for this behavior require that vibrotactile signals are integrated over time. While temporal integration properties of neurons along the whisker somatosensory pathway have been studied extensively, the consequences for behavior are unknown. Here, we investigate the ability of head-fixed rats to integrate information over time for the detection of near-threshold pulsatile deflection sequences applied to a single whisker. Psychometric detection performance was assessed with whisker stimuli composed of different numbers of pulses (1-31) delivered at varying frequencies (10, 20, 100 Hz). Detection performance indeed improved with increasing number and frequency of pulses, albeit this improvement was much lower than predicted by probabilistic combination, suggesting highly sublinear integration of pulses. This behavioral observation was reflected in the firing properties of concomitantly recorded barrel cortex neurons, which showed substantial response adaptation to repetitive whisker deflection. To estimate the integration time with which barrel cortex neuronal activity must be read out to match behavior, we constructed a model monitoring spiking activity of simulated neuronal pools, where spike trains were channeled through a leaky integrator with exponential decay. Detection was accomplished by simple threshold crossings. This simple model gave an excellent match of neurometric and psychometric data at surprisingly small time constants tau of 5-8 ms, thus limiting integration largely to
 
Seymour K., Clifford C.W.G., Logothetis N.K., Bartels A. (2010) The representation of orientations, colours and their conjunctions in human visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 20(8), p.1946-1954.
Publication date: February, 2010
 
Bongard S., Nieder A. (2010) Basic mathematical rules are encoded by primate prefrontal cortex neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 107(5):2277-82.
Publication date: February, 2010
Mathematics is based on highly abstract principles, or rules, of how to structure, process, and evaluate numerical information. If and how mathematical rules can be represented by single neurons, however, has remained elusive. We therefore recorded the activity of individual prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons in rhesus monkeys required to switch flexibly between greater than" and "less than" rules. The monkeys performed this task with different numerical quantities and generalized to set sizes that had not been presented previously, indicating that they had learned an abstract mathematical principle. The most prevalent activity recorded from randomly selected PFC neurons reflected the mathematical rules. Purely sensory- and memory-related activity was almost absent. These data show that single PFC neurons have the capacity to represent flexible operations on most abstract numerical quantities. Our findings support PFC network models implementing specific "rule-coding" units that control the flow of information between segregated input, memory, and output layers. We speculate that these neuronal circuits in the monkey lateral PFC could readily have been adopted in the course of primate evolution for syntactic processing of numbers in formalized mathematical systems."
 
Vermeulen R.J., Wilke M., Horber V., Krägeloh-Mann I. (2010) Microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern: MRI classification. Neurology. 74(5):386-91.
Publication date: February, 2010
OBJECTIVES: To develop subjective (visual) and objective (morphometric) rating scales for the classification of MRI in infants who had microcephaly with a simplified gyral pattern (MSGP) and to validate the first by the latter.
METHODS: We compared the MRI of 12 patients with MSGP and of 5 term-born control infants. Visual rating and morphometric analysis was performed for gyration and associated brain abnormalities of basal ganglia, lateral ventricles, pons, cerebellum, and corpus callosum.
RESULTS: Gyral pattern was rated reliably as normal in the control infants, simplified in 6 patients, and severely simplified in the other 6 patients. Associated brain abnormalities were reported in 10 of 12 patients. Visual rating correlated well with the morphometric measures.
CONCLUSIONS: Our visual rating scale for a simplified gyral pattern proved to be sensitive and reliable. Associated brain abnormalities are frequent, which underlines the need for a consistent scoring in these patients.
 
Diekelmann S., Born J. (2010) The memory function of sleep. Nat Rev Neurosci. 11(2):114-26.
Publication date: February, 2010
Sleep has been identified as a state that optimizes the consolidation of newly acquired information in memory, depending on the specific conditions of learning and the timing of sleep. Consolidation during sleep promotes both quantitative and qualitative changes of memory representations. Through specific patterns of neuromodulatory activity and electric field potential oscillations, slow-wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep support system consolidation and synaptic consolidation, respectively. During SWS, slow oscillations, spindles and ripples - at minimum cholinergic activity - coordinate the re-activation and redistribution of hippocampus-dependent memories to neocortical sites, whereas during REM sleep, local increases in plasticity-related immediate-early gene activity - at high cholinergic and theta activity - might favour the subsequent synaptic consolidation of memories in the cortex.
 
Sokolov AA., Gharabaghi A., Tatagiba M., Pavlova M. (2010) Cerebellar engagement in an action observation network. Cereb Cortex. 2010 Feb;20(2):486-91. Epub 2009 Jun 22. PubMed PMID: 19546157.
Publication date: February, 2010
 
Ecker A.S., Berens P., Keliris G.A., Bethge M., Logothetis N.K., Tolias A.S. (2010) Decorrelated neuronal firing in cortical microcircuits. Science. 327(5965):584-7.
Publication date: January, 2010
Correlated trial-to-trial variability in the activity of cortical neurons is thought to reflect the functional connectivity of the circuit. Many cortical areas are organized into functional columns, in which neurons are believed to be densely connected and to share common input. Numerous studies report a high degree of correlated variability between nearby cells. We developed chronically implanted multitetrode arrays offering unprecedented recording quality to reexamine this question in the primary visual cortex of awake macaques. We found that even nearby neurons with similar orientation tuning show virtually no correlated variability. Our findings suggest a refinement of current models of cortical microcircuit architecture and function: Either adjacent neurons share only a few percent of their inputs or, alternatively, their activity is actively decorrelated.
 
Haiss F., Butovas S., Schwarz C. (2010) A miniaturized chronic microelectrode drive for awake behaving head restrained mice and rats. J. Neurosci. Meth. 187:67-72
Publication date: 2010
 
Schwarz C. (2010) The fate of spontaneous synchronous rhythms on the cerebro-cerebellar loop. Cerebellum 9:77-87
Publication date: 2010
 
Butovas S., Rudolph U., Jurd R., Schwarz C., Antkowiak B. (2010) Activity patterns in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus during and after awakening from etomidate anesthesia. Anesthesiology 113:48-57
Publication date: 2010
 
Schwarz C., Hentschke H., Butovas S., Haiss F., Stüttgen M.C., Gerdjikov T.V., Bergner C.G., Waiblinger C. (2010) The head-fixed behaving rat - procedures and pitfalls. Somatosensory & Motor Research, 27:131-148
Publication date: 2010
Open Access
 
Kreuzer M., Hentschke H., Antkowiak B., Schwarz C., Kochs E.F., Schneider G. (2010) Cross-Approximate Entropy of cortical local field potentials quantifies effects of anesthesia - a pilot study in rats. BMC Neuroscience, 11:122
Publication date: 2010
Open access
 
Brugger D., et al. (2010) Real-Time Adaptive Microstimulation Increases Reliability of Electrically Evoked Cortical Potentials. Submitted: IEEE Trans. on Biomedical Engineering.
Publication date: 2010
 
Dehler J., Bodemer D., Buder J., Hesse F.W. (2010) Partner knowledge awareness in knowledge communication: Learning by adapting to the partner. The Journal of Experimental Education. In press.
Publication date: 2010
 
Döring S.A., Feger F. (2010) Risk Assessment as Virtue. In: Roeser S, editor. Emotions and Risky Technologies. Heidelberg: Springer.
Publication date: 2010
 
Fleischer M., Jäger S., Zhang D., Braun K., Ehlich R., Stade F., et al. (2010) Tailoring gold nanostructures for near-field optical applications. Nanotechnology. 21(6):065301.
Publication date: 2010
 
Hermes M., Eichhoff G., Garaschuk O. (2010) Intracellular calcium signalling in Alzheimer's disease. J Cell Mol Med. 14(1-2):30-41. Epub 2009 Nov 19.
Publication date: 2010
More than two decades ago, dysregulation of the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis was suggested to underlie the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This hypothesis was tested in numerous in vitro studies, which revealed multiple Ca(2+) signalling pathways able to contribute to AD pathology. It remained, however, unclear whether these pathways are also activated in vivo, in cells involved in signal processing in the living brain. Here we review recent data analysing intracellular Ca(2+) signalling in vivo in the context of previous in vitro findings. We particularly focus on the processes taking place in the immediate vicinity of amyloid plaques and on their possible role for AD-mediated brain dysfunction.
 
Karim A.A., Schneider M., Lotze M., Veit R., Sauseng P., Braun C., Birbaumer N. (2010) The truth about lying: inhibition of the anterior prefrontal cortex improves deceptive behavior. Cereb Cortex. 20(1):205-13.
Publication date: 2010
Recent neuroimaging studies have indicated a predominant role of the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC) in deception and moral cognition, yet the functional contribution of the aPFC to deceptive behavior remains unknown. We hypothesized that modulating the excitability of the aPFC by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could reveal its functional contribution in generating deceitful responses. Forty-four healthy volunteers participated in a thief role-play in which they were supposed to steal money and then to attend an interrogation with the Guilty Knowledge Test. During the interrogation, participants received cathodal, anodal, or sham tDCS. Remarkably, inhibition of the aPFC by cathodal tDCS did not lead to an impairment of deceptive behavior but rather to a significant improvement. This effect manifested in faster reaction times in telling lies, but not in telling the truth, a decrease in sympathetic skin-conductance response and feelings of guilt while deceiving the interrogator and a significantly higher lying quotient reflecting skillful lying. Increasing the excitability of the aPFC by anodal tDCS did not affect deceptive behavior, confirming the specificity of the stimulation polarity. These findings give causal support to recent correlative data obtained by functional magnetic resonance imaging studies indicating a pivotal role of the aPFC in deception.
 
Kovalchuk Y., Garaschuk O. (2010) Intravital two-photon chloride imaging using MQAE. In: Optical Imaging in Neuroscience: A Laboratory Manual. Cold Spring Harbor Press. In press.
Publication date: 2010
 
Lange R., Elter P., Biala K., Matschegewski C., et al. (2010) Titanium surfaces structured with regular geometry – Material and cell biological investigations. Surface and Interface Analysis, accepted.
Publication date: 2010
 
Zahn C., Pea R., Hesse F.W., Rosen J. (2010) Comparing simple and advanced video tools as supports for collaborative design processes. Journal of the Learning Sciences. 19(3):403-440.
Publication date: 2010
 
Johnson S.L., Franz C., Kuhn S., Furness D.N., Rüttiger L., Münkner S., Rivolta M.N., Seward E.P., Herschman H.R., Engel J., Knipper M., Marcotti W. (2010) Synaptotagmin IV determines the linear Ca2+ dependence of vesicle fusion at auditory ribbon synapses. Nat Neurosci. 13(1):45-52.
Publication date: 2010
Mammalian cochlear inner hair cells (IHCs) are specialized for the dynamic coding of continuous and finely graded sound signals. This ability is largely conferred by the linear Ca(2+) dependence of neurotransmitter release at their synapses, which is also a feature of visual and olfactory systems. The prevailing hypothesis is that linearity in IHCs occurs through a developmental change in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of synaptic vesicle fusion from the nonlinear (high order) Ca(2+) dependence of immature spiking cells. However, the nature of the Ca(2+) sensor(s) of vesicle fusion at hair cell synapses is unknown. We found that synaptotagmin IV was essential for establishing the linear exocytotic Ca(2+) dependence in adult rodent IHCs and immature outer hair cells. Moreover, the expression of the hitherto undetected synaptotagmins I and II correlated with a high-order Ca(2+) dependence in IHCs. We propose that the differential expression of synaptotagmins determines the characteristic Ca(2+) sensitivity of vesicle fusion at hair cell synapses.
 
Janzing D., Schölkopf B. (2010) Causal Inference Using the Algorithmic Markov Condition. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory. 56(10):5168-94.
Publication date: 2010
 
Theodorou E., Buchli J., Schaal S. (2010) Reinforcement learning in high dimensional state spaces: A path integral approach. Journal of Machine Learning Research. 3137-81.
Publication date: 2010
 
Kalakrishnan M., Buchli J., Pastor P., Mistry M., Schaal S. (2010) Learning, planning, and control for quadruped locomotion over challenging terrain. International Journal of Robotics Research. 30:236-258.
Publication date: 2010
 
Matschegewski C., Stählke S., Löffler R., Lange R., Chai F., Kern D.P., Beck U., Nebe B.J. (2010) Cell architecture - cell function dependencies on titanium arrays with regular geometry. Biomaterials. 31(22):5729-5740.
Publication date: 2010
 
Döring S. (2010) What a Difference Emotions Make. In: O'Connor T. and Blackwell C.S., editors. Companion to the Philosophy of Action. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 191-200.
Publication date: 2010
 
Döring S. (2010) Warum emotional sein? In: Slaby, Stephan, and Walter, editors. Affektive Intentionalität. Paderborn: Mentis.
Publication date: 2010
 
Döring S. (2010) Why Be Emotional? In: Goldie P., editor. Oxford Handbook of Philosophy of Emotion. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 283-302.
Publication date: 2010
 
Birbaumer N., Schmidt R.F. (2010) Biologische Psychologie. Siebte Auflage. Springer Medizin Verlag, Heidelberg.
Publication date: 2010
 
Arbeiter G., Fischer J., Verl A. (2010) 3-D-Environment Reconstruction for Mobile Robots using fast- SLAM and Feature Extraction. In: Neumann K., editor. International Federation of Robotics: Joint International Conference of ISR/ROBOTIK2010. 291-5.
Publication date: 2010
 
Palzkill M., Ledermann T., Verl A. (2010) Anticipation-Preprocessing for Object Pose Detection. In: Neumann K., editor. International Federation of Robotics: Joint International Conference of ISR/ROBOTIK2010. 440-5.
Publication date: 2010
 
Verl A., Frey S. (2010) Correlation between feed velocity and preloading in ball screw drives. CIRP Annals Manufacturing Technology 59(1):429-32.
Publication date: 2010
 
Verl A., Müller V. (2010) Wieder verwendbare Modelle zur disziplin- und domänenübergreifenden Simulation. In: Brecher C., editor. Hybride Technologien in der Produktion. 9-21.
Publication date: 2010
 
Verl A., Schmitz S., Yang D., Wurst KH. (2010) Vereinheitlichung der Übertragungsmedien für die Leistungssteigerung und die Kommunikation. In: Brecher C, editor. Hybride Technologien in der Produktion. 42-64.
Publication date: 2010
2009
 
 
Krämer UM, Rojo N., Schüle R, Cunillera T, Schöls L., Marco-Pallarés J, Cucurell D, Camara E, et al. (2009) ADHD candidate gene (DRD4 exon III) affects inhibitory control in a healthy sample. BMC Neurosci. 10:150.
Publication date: December, 2009
BACKGROUND:
Dopamine is believed to be a key neurotransmitter in the development of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Several recent studies point to an association of the dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) gene and this condition. More specifically, the 7 repeat variant of a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in exon III of this gene is suggested to bear a higher risk for ADHD. In the present study, we investigated the role of this polymorphism in the modulation of neurophysiological correlates of response inhibition (Go/Nogo task) in a healthy, high-functioning sample.

RESULTS:
Homozygous 7 repeat carriers showed a tendency for more accurate behavior in the Go/Nogo task compared to homozygous 4 repeat carriers. Moreover, 7 repeat carriers presented an increased nogo-related theta band response together with a reduced go-related beta decrease.

CONCLUSIONS:
These data point to improved cognitive functions and prefrontal control in the 7 repeat carriers, probably due to the D4 receptor's modulatory role in prefrontal areas. The results are discussed with respect to previous behavioral data on this polymorphism and animal studies on the impact of the D4 receptor on cognitive functions.
 
Busse L., Wade A.R., Carandini M. (2009) Representation of concurrent stimuli by population activity in visual cortex. Neuron, 64(6):931–942.
Publication date: December, 2009
 
Siegel M., Warden M. R., Miller E. K. (2009) Phase-Dependent Neuronal Coding of Objects in Short-Term Memory. PNAS 106: 21341–21346
Publication date: December, 2009
 
Ilg W., Synofzik M., Brötz D., Burkhard S., Giese M.A., Schöls L. (2009) Intensive coordinative training improves motor performance in degenerative disease. Neurology. 73(22):1823-30. Epub 2009 Oct 28.
Publication date: December, 2009
OBJECTIVES: The cerebellum is known to play a strong functional role in both motor control and motor learning. Hence, the benefit of physiotherapeutic training remains controversial for patients with cerebellar degeneration. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of a 4-week intensive coordinative training for 16 patients with progressive ataxia due to cerebellar degeneration (n = 10) or degeneration of afferent pathways (n = 6).

METHODS: Effects were assessed by clinical ataxia rating scales, individual goal attainment scores, and quantitative movement analysis. Four assessments were performed: 8 weeks before, immediately before, directly after, and 8 weeks after training. To control for variability in disease progression, we used an intraindividual control design, where performance changes with and without training were compared.

RESULTS: Significant improvements in motor performance and reduction of ataxia symptoms were observed in clinical scores after training and were sustained at follow-up assessment. Patients with predominant cerebellar ataxia revealed more distinct improvement than patients with afferent ataxia in several aspects of gait like velocity, lateral sway, and intralimb coordination. Consistently, in patients with cerebellar but without afferent ataxia, the regulation of balance in static and dynamic balance tasks improved significantly.

CONCLUSION: In patients with cerebellar ataxia, coordinative training improves motor performance and reduces ataxia symptoms, enabling them to achieve personally meaningful goals in everyday life. Training effects were more distinct for patients whose afferent pathways were not affected. For both groups, continuous training seems crucial for stabilizing improvements and should become standard of care. Level of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that coordinative training improves motor performance and reduces ataxia symptoms in patients with progressive cerebellar ataxia.
 
Endres D., Giese M.A. (2009) Temporal segmentation with Bayesian binning. In: NIPS 2009; Workshop on Temporal Segmentation, 12 Dec., Whistler, B.C., Canada (accepted)
Publication date: December, 2009
 
Endres D., Földiák P., Priss U. (2009) An Application of Formal Concept Analysis to Semantic Neural Decoding. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, special issue S47-CLA'08 (accepted)
Publication date: December, 2009
 
Beetz N., Harrison M.D., Brede M., et al. (2009) Phosducin Influences Sympathetic Activity and Prevents Stress-Induced Hypertension in Humans and Mice. J Clin Invest. 119(12):3597-3612.
Publication date: December, 2009
Hypertension and its complications represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although the cause of hypertension is unknown in most patients, genetic factors are recognized as contributing significantly to an individual's lifetime risk of developing the condition. Here, we investigated the role of the G protein regulator phosducin (Pdc) in hypertension. Mice with a targeted deletion of the gene encoding Pdc (Pdc-/- mice) had increased blood pressure despite normal cardiac function and vascular reactivity, and displayed elevated catecholamine turnover in the peripheral sympathetic system. Isolated postganglionic sympathetic neurons from Pdc-/- mice showed prolonged action potential firing after stimulation with acetylcholine and increased firing frequencies during membrane depolarization. Furthermore, Pdc-/- mice displayed exaggerated increases in blood pressure in response to post-operative stress. Candidate gene-based association studies in 2 different human populations revealed several SNPs in the PDC gene to be associated with stress-dependent blood pressure phenotypes. Individuals homozygous for the G allele of an intronic PDC SNP (rs12402521) had 12-15 mmHg higher blood pressure than those carrying the A allele. These findings demonstrate that PDC is an important modulator of sympathetic activity and blood pressure and may thus represent a promising target for treatment of stress-dependent hypertension.
 
Bujakowska K., Maubaret C., Chakarova C.F., et al. (2009) Study of gene-targeted mouse models of splicing factor gene Prpf31 implicated in human autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (RP). Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(12):5927-33. Epub 2009 Jul 2.
Publication date: December, 2009
PURPOSE: Pre-mRNA processing factor 31 (PRPF31) is a ubiquitous protein needed for the assembly of the pre-mRNA splicing machinery. It has been shown that mutations in this gene cause autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa 11 (RP11), which is characterized by rod-cell degeneration. Interestingly, mutations in this ubiquitously expressed gene do not lead to phenotypes other than retinal malfunction. Furthermore, the dominant inheritance pattern has shown incomplete penetrance, which poses interesting questions about the disease mechanism of RP11.

METHODS: To characterize PRPF31 function in the rod cells, two animal models have been generated. One was a heterozygous knock-in mouse (Prpf31(A216P/+)) carrying a point mutation p.A216P, which has previously been identified in RP11 patients. The second was a heterozygous knockout mouse (Prpf31(+/-)). Retinal degeneration in RP11 mouse models was monitored by electroretinography and histology.

RESULTS: Generation of the mouse models is presented, as are results of ERGs and retinal morphology. No degenerative phenotype on fundus examination was found in Prpf31(A216P/+) and Prpf31(+/-) mice. Prpf31(A216P/A216P) and Prpf31(-/-) genotypes were embryonic lethal.

CONCLUSIONS: The results imply that Prpf31 is necessary for survival, and there is no compensation mechanism in mouse for the lack of this splicing factor. The authors suggest that p.A216P mutation in Prpf31 does not exert a dominant negative effect and that one Prpf31 wild-type allele is sufficient for maintenance of the healthy retina in mice.
 
Huber G., Beck S.C., Grimm C., Sahaboglu-Tekgoz A., Paquet-Durand F., Wenzel A., et al. (2009) Spectral domain optical coherence tomography in mouse models of retinal degeneration. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(12):5888-95. Epub 2009 Aug 6.
Publication date: December, 2009
PURPOSE: Spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) allows cross-sectional visualization of retinal structures in vivo. Here, the authors report the efficacy of a commercially available SD-OCT device to study mouse models of retinal degeneration.

METHODS: C57BL/6 and BALB/c wild-type mice and three different mouse models of hereditary retinal degeneration (Rho(-/-), rd1, RPE65(-/-)) were investigated using confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (cSLO) for en face visualization and SD-OCT for cross-sectional imaging of retinal structures. Histology was performed to correlate structural findings in SD-OCT with light microscopic data.

RESULTS: In C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice, cSLO and SD-OCT imaging provided structural details of frequently used control animals (central retinal thickness, CRT(C57BL/6) = 237 +/- 2 microm and CRT(BALB/c) = 211 +/- 10 microm). RPE65(-/-) mice at 11 months of age showed a significant reduction of retinal thickness (CRT(RPE65) = 193 +/- 2 microm) with thinning of the outer nuclear layer. Rho(-/-) mice at P28 demonstrated degenerative changes mainly in the outer retinal layers (CRT(Rho) = 193 +/- 2 microm). Examining rd1 animals before and after the onset of retinal degeneration allowed monitoring of disease progression (CRT(rd1 P11) = 246 +/- 4 microm, CRT(rd1 P28) = 143 +/- 4 microm). Correlation of CRT assessed by histology and SD-OCT was high (r(2) = 0.897).

CONCLUSIONS: The authors demonstrated cross-sectional visualization of retinal structures in wild-type mice and mouse models for retinal degeneration in vivo using a commercially available SD-OCT device. This method will help to reduce numbers of animals needed per study by allowing longitudinal study designs and will facilitate characterization of disease dynamics and evaluation of putative therapeutic effects after experimental interventions.
 
Kreifelts B., Ethofer T., Shiozawa T., Grodd W., Wildgruber D. (2009) Cerebral representation of non-verbal emotional perception: fMRI reveals audiovisual integration area between voice- and face-sensitive regions in the superior temporal sulcus. Neuropsychologia. 47(14):3059-66. Epub 2009 Jul 21.
Publication date: December, 2009
Successful social interaction relies on multimodal integration of non-verbal emotional signals. The neural correlates of this function, along with those underlying the processing of human faces and voices, have been linked to the superior temporal sulcus (STS) in previous neuroimaging studies. Yet, recently it has been demonstrated that this structure consists of several anatomically defined sections, including a trunk section as well as two separate terminal branches, and exhibits a pronounced spatial variability across subjects. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we demonstrated that the neural representations of the audiovisual integration of non-verbal emotional signals, voice sensitivity and face sensitivity are located in different parts of the STS with maximum voice sensitivity in the trunk section and maximum face sensitivity in the posterior terminal ascending branch. The audiovisual integration area for emotional signals is located at the bifurcation of the STS at an overlap of voice- and face-sensitive regions. In summary, our findings evidence a functional subdivision of the STS into modules subserving the processing of different aspects of social communication, here exemplified in human voices and faces and audiovisual integration of emotional signals from these sources and suggest a possible interaction of the underlying voice- and face-sensitive neuronal populations during the formation of the audiovisual emotional percept.
 
Zeitz C., Labs S., Lorenz B., Forster U., Uksti J., Kroes H.Y., et al. (2009) Genotyping microarray for CSNB-associated genes. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(12):5919-26. Epub 2009 Jul 2.
Publication date: December, 2009
PURPOSE: Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous retinal disease. Although electroretinographic (ERG) measurements can discriminate clinical subgroups, the identification of the underlying genetic defects has been complicated for CSNB because of genetic heterogeneity, the uncertainty about the mode of inheritance, and time-consuming and costly mutation scanning and direct sequencing approaches.

METHODS: To overcome these challenges and to generate a time- and cost-efficient mutation screening tool, the authors developed a CSNB genotyping microarray with arrayed primer extension (APEX) technology. To cover as many mutations as possible, a comprehensive literature search was performed, and DNA samples from a cohort of patients with CSNB were first sequenced directly in known CSNB genes. Subsequently, oligonucleotides were designed representing 126 sequence variations in RHO, CABP4, CACNA1F, CACNA2D4, GNAT1, GRM6, NYX, PDE6B, and SAG and spotted on the chip.

RESULTS: Direct sequencing of genes known to be associated with CSNB in the study cohort revealed 21 mutations (12 novel and 9 previously reported). The resultant microarray containing oligonucleotides, which allow to detect 126 known and novel mutations, was 100% effective in determining the expected sequence changes in all known samples assessed. In addition, investigation of 34 patients with CSNB who were previously not genotyped revealed sequence variants in 18%, of which 15% are thought to be disease-causing mutations.

CONCLUSIONS: This relatively inexpensive first-pass genetic testing device for patients with a diagnosis of CSNB will improve molecular diagnostics and genetic counseling of patients and their families and gives the opportunity to analyze whether, for example, more progressive disorders such as cone or cone-rod dystrophies underlie the same gene defects.
 
Maetzler W., Liepelt I., Berg D. (2009) Progression of Parkinson's disease in the clinical phase: potential markers. Lancet Neurol. 8(12):1158-71. Review.
Publication date: December, 2009
Neuromodulatory or even neuroprotective therapy could soon be available for Parkinson's disease (PD), raising the question of how we should define and measure disease progression. Reported evidence suggests that several symptoms worsen with disease duration. Bradykinesia, rigidity, and activities of daily living deteriorate faster at the beginning of the disease, and this deterioration is paralleled by a decline in functional presynaptic dopaminergic activity, as shown by imaging techniques. Cognitive, speech, sleep, and gait difficulties might progress linearly in proportion to disease duration. Reduced variability in heart rate, orthostatic dysfunction, and visual hallucinations start to develop at mid-stage disease and are more common in late stages than earlier stages. In this Review, we summarise our current understanding of the progression of PD-associated symptoms and markers and conclude that an effective measurement of progression of PD must adapt to the different stages of the disease. In addition to routine clinical rating scales, new quantitative assessments of motor and non-motor symptoms, which should be more broadly available, reasonably priced, and easy-to-use, are needed.
 
Ignashchenkova A., Dash S., Dicke P.W., Haarmeier T., Glickstein M., Thier P. (2009) Normal spatial attention but impaired saccades and visual motion perception after lesions of the monkey cerebellum. J Neurophysiol. 102(6):3156-68.
Publication date: December, 2009
Lesions of the cerebellum produce deficits in movement and motor learning. Saccadic dysmetria, for example, is caused by lesions of the posterior cerebellar vermis. Monkeys and patients with such lesions are unable to modify the amplitude of saccades. Some have suggested that the effects on eye movements might reflect a more global cognitive deficit caused by the cerebellar lesion. We tested that idea by studying the effects of vermis lesions on attention as well as saccadic eye movements, visual motion perception, and luminance change detection. Lesions in posterior vermis of four monkeys caused the known deficits in saccadic control. Attention tested by examination of acuity threshold changes induced by prior cueing of the location of the targets remained normal after vermis lesions. Luminance change detection was also unaffected by the lesions. In one case, after a lesion restricted to lobulus VIII, the animal had impaired visual motion perception.
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2009) Visual learning shapes the processing of complex movement stimuli in the human brain. In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 29 No. 44, pp. 14026--38
Publication date: November, 2009
 
Park A., Mukovskiy A., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2009) Design of dynamical stability properties in character animation. In: The 6th Workshop on Virtual Reality Interaction and Physical Simulation. ,VRIPHYS 09, Nov 5-6, Karlsruhe, (in press )
Publication date: November, 2009
 
Ashby R., Ohlendorf A., Schaeffel F. (2009) The effect of ambient illuminance on the development of deprivation myopia in chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(11):5348-54. Epub 2009 Jun 10.
Publication date: November, 2009
PURPOSE: Recent epidemiologic studies have shown that children who spend a higher proportion of time outdoors are less likely to develop myopia. This study was undertaken to investigate whether light levels may be a relevant factor in the development of myopia. METHODS; Paradigm 1: Chicks were fitted with translucent diffusers for 5 days, with the diffusers removed daily for 15 minutes under one of three lighting conditions: (1) normal laboratory lighting (500 lux), (2) intense laboratory lighting (15,000 lux), or (3) daylight (30,000 lux). A control group, which continuously wore diffusers, was also kept under an illumination of 500 lux. Paradigm 2: Chicks fitted with translucent diffusers were raised for 4 days under one of three lighting conditions: (1) low laboratory lighting (50 lux, n = 9), (2) normal laboratory lighting (500 lux, n = 18), or (3) intense laboratory lights (15,000 lux, n = 9). In groups 1 and 3, the chicks were exposed to either low or high ambient illuminances for a period of 6 hours per day (10 AM-4 PM), but were kept under 500 lux for the remaining time of the light phase. Axial length and refraction were measured at the commencement and cessation of all treatments, with corneal curvature measured additionally in paradigm 2.

RESULTS: Paradigm 1: The chicks exposed daily to sunlight for 15 minutes had significantly shorter eyes (8.81 +/- 0.05 mm; P < 0.01) and less myopic refractions (-1.1 +/- 0.45 D; P < 0.01) than did the chicks that had their diffusers removed under normal laboratory light levels (8.98 +/- 0.03 mm, -5.3 +/- 0.5 D). If the diffusers were removed under intense laboratory lights, the chicks also developed shorter eyes (8.88 +/- 0.04 mm; P < 0.01) and less myopic refractions (-3.4 +/- 0.6D; P < 0.01). Paradigm 2: The chicks that wore diffusers continuously under high illuminance had shorter eyes (8.54 +/- 0.02 mm; P < 0.01) and less myopic refractions (+0.04 +/- 0.7D; P < 0.001) compared with those chicks reared under normal light levels (8.64 +/- 0.06 mm, -5.3 +/- 0.9 D). Low illuminance (50 lux) did not further increase deprivation myopia.

CONCLUSIONS: Exposing chicks to high illuminances, either sunlight or intense laboratory lights, retards the development of experimental myopia. These results, in conjunction with recent epidemiologic findings, suggest that daily exposure to high light levels may have a protective effect against the development of school-age myopia in children.
 
Bieri O., Scheffler K. (2009) SSFP signal with finite RF pulses. Magn Reson Med. 62(5):1232-41.
Publication date: November, 2009
The theoretical description of steady state free precession (SSFP) sequences is generally well accepted and unquestioned, although it is based on instantaneously acting radiofrequency (RF) pulses. In practice, however, all excitation processes are finite, thereby questioning the overall validity of the common SSFP signal description for use with finite RF pulses. In this paper, finite RF pulse effects on balanced SSFP signal formation are analyzed as a function of the RF time, the pulse repetition time, the flip angle (alpha) and relaxation times (T(1,2)). The observed signal modulations from finite RF pulses (compared to infinitesimal ones) can range from only a few percent (for RF time/pulse repetition time
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Treue S. (2009) Attention to the Color of a Moving Stimulus Modulates Motion-Signal Processing in Macaque Area MT: Evidence for a Unified Attentional System. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 3:12. doi:10.3389/neuro.06.012.2009.
Publication date: October, 2009
 
Fischer M.D., Huber G., Beck S.C., Tanimoto N., Muehlfriedel R., Fahl E., et al. (2009) Noninvasive, in vivo assessment of mouse retinal structure using optical coherence tomography. PLoS One. 4(10):e7507.
Publication date: October, 2009
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method of retinal in vivo imaging. In this study, we assessed the potential of OCT to yield histology-analogue sections in mouse models of retinal degeneration.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We achieved to adapt a commercial 3(rd) generation OCT system to obtain and quantify high-resolution morphological sections of the mouse retina which so far required in vitro histology. OCT and histology were compared in models with developmental defects, light damage, and inherited retinal degenerations. In conditional knockout mice deficient in retinal retinoblastoma protein Rb, the gradient of Cre expression from center to periphery, leading to a gradual reduction of retinal thickness, was clearly visible and well topographically quantifiable. In Nrl knockout mice, the layer involvement in the formation of rosette-like structures was similarly clear as in histology. OCT examination of focal light damage, well demarcated by the autofluorescence pattern, revealed a practically complete loss of photoreceptors with preservation of inner retinal layers, but also more subtle changes like edema formation. In Crb1 knockout mice (a model for Leber's congenital amaurosis), retinal vessels slipping through the outer nuclear layer towards the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) due to the lack of adhesion in the subapical region of the photoreceptor inner segments could be well identified.

CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We found that with the OCT we were able to detect and analyze a wide range of mouse retinal pathology, and the results compared well to histological sections. In addition, the technique allows to follow individual animals over time, thereby reducing the numbers of study animals needed, and to assess dynamic processes like edema formation. The results clearly indicate that OCT has the potential to revolutionize the future design of respective short- and long-term studies, as well as the preclinical assessment of therapeutic strategies.
 
Wiethoff S., Wildgruber D., Grodd W., Ethofer T. (2009) Response and habituation of the amygdala during processing of emotional prosody. Neuroreport. 20(15):1356-60.
Publication date: October, 2009
The role of the amygdala in processing acoustic information of affective value is still under debate. Using event-related functional MRI (fMRI), we showed increased amygdalar responses to various emotions (anger, fear, happiness, eroticism) expressed by prosody, a means of communication bound to language and consequently unique to humans. The smallest signal increases were found for fearful prosody, a finding that could not be explained by rapid response habituation to stimuli of this emotional category, challenging classical theories about fear specificity of the human amygdala. Our results converge with earlier neuroimaging evidence investigating emotional vocalizations, and these neurobiological similarities suggest that the two forms of communication might have common evolutionary roots.
 
Feng G., Wang Y., Stock O., Pfister F., Tanimoto N., Seeliger M.W., et al. (2009) Vasoregression linked to neuronal damage in the rat with defect of polycystin-2. PLoS One. 4(10):e7328.
Publication date: October, 2009
BACKGROUND: Neuronal damage is correlated with vascular dysfunction in the diseased retina, but the underlying mechanisms remain controversial because of the lack of suitable models in which vasoregression related to neuronal damage initiates in the mature retinal vasculature. The aim of this study was to assess the temporal link between neuronal damage and vascular patency in a transgenic rat (TGR) with overexpression of a mutant cilia gene polycystin-2.

METHODS: Vasoregression, neuroglial changes and expression of neurotrophic factors were assessed in TGR and control rats in a time course. Determination of neuronal changes was performed by quantitative morphometry of paraffin-embedded vertical sections. Vascular cell composition and patency were assessed by quantitative retinal morphometry of digest preparations. Glial activation was assessed by western blot and immunofluorescence. Expression of neurotrophic factors was detected by quantitative PCR.

FINDINGS: At one month, number and thickness of the outer nuclear cell layers (ONL) in TGR rats were reduced by 31% (p
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Treue S. (2009) Attention to the color of a moving stimulus modulates motion-signal processing in macaque area MT: evidence for a unified attentional system. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience, 3(12):doi:10.3389/neuro:06.012.2009
Publication date: October, 2009
 
Gerwinn S., Macke J.H. , Bethge M. (2009) Bayesian population decoding of spiking neurons Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 3(21)
Publication date: October, 2009
 
Bratzke D., Rolke B., Ulrich R. (2009) The source of execution-related dual-task interference: motor bottleneck or response monitoring? J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 35(5):1413-26.
Publication date: October, 2009
The present study assessed the underlying mechanism of execution-related dual-task interference in the psychological refractory period (PRP) paradigm. The motor bottleneck hypothesis attributes this interference to a processing limitation at the motor level. By contrast, the response monitoring hypothesis attributes it to a bottleneck process that not only selects the appropriate response but also monitors its execution. In two experiments, participants performed ballistic movements of different distances in Task 1 and a choice reaction time task in Task 2. In each experiment, a propagation effect of movement distance on reaction time in Task 2 indicated substantial execution-related interference. To determine the locus of this effect, we manipulated stimulus-response compatibility in Task 2. In line with the motor bottleneck hypothesis, the compatibility effect was partially absorbed during movement execution of Task 1. The results support a motor bottleneck mechanism rather than response monitoring as the source of execution-related dual-task interference.
 
Diedrich E., Schaeffel F. (2009) Spatial resolution, contrast sensitivity, and sensitivity to defocus of chicken retinal ganglion cells in vitro. Vis Neurosci. 26(5-6):467-76. Epub 2009 Dec 4.
Publication date: October, 2009
The chicken has been extensively studied as an animal model for myopia because its eye growth is tightly controlled by visual experience. It has been found that the retina controls the axial eye growth rates depending on the amount and the sign of defocus imposed in the projected image. Glucagonergic amacrine cells were discovered that appear to encode for the sign of imposed defocus. It is not clear whether the downstream neurons, the retinal ganglion cells, still have access to this information-and whether it ultimately reaches the brain. We have analyzed the spike rates of chicken retinal ganglion cells in vitro using a microelectrode array. For this purpose, we initially defined spatial resolution and contrast sensitivity in vitro. Two classes of chicken retinal ganglions were found, depending on the linearity of their responses with increasing contrast. Responses generally declined with increasing defocus of the visual stimulus. These responses were well predicted by the modulation transfer function for a diffraction-limited defocused optical system, the first Bessel function. Thus, the studied retinal ganglion cells did not distinguish between a loss of contrast at a given spatial frequency due to reduced contrast of the stimulus pattern or because the pattern was presented out of focus. Furthermore, there was no indication that the retinal ganglion cells responded differently to defocus of either sign, at least for the cells that were recorded in this study.
 
Juenger H., Ressel V., Braun C., Ernemann U., Schuhmann M., Krägeloh-Mann I., Staudt M. (2009) Misleading functional magnetic resonance imaging mapping of the cortical hand representation in a 4-year-old boy with an arteriovenous malformation of the central region. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 4(4):333-8.
Publication date: October, 2009

Functional MR imaging is dependent on the hemodynamic response function of the brain. Cerebrovascular anomalies may lead to hemodynamic artifacts, contorting the true localization of neural activation. This is illustrated in the case of a 4-year-old boy with an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) of the left central region undergoing extensive functional mapping prior to surgical removal. Intraoperative electrophysiological recording confirmed presurgical results of magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) examinations, detecting the sensorimotor hand representation within the brain tissue into which the AVM extended, whereas the activation demonstrated by functional MR (fMR) imaging was proven to be falsely localized by that modality, which showed it to be posterior to the affected central region. Thus, this case demonstrates that functional mapping can be performed even in very young patients and that combining fMR imaging with TMS and MEG is especially important in patients with vascular lesions, in whom fMR imaging can be misleading due to changes in blood flow.
 
Münch T.A., da Silveira R.A., Siegert S., Viney T.J., Awatramani G.B., Roska B. (2009) Approach sensitivity in the retina processed by a multifunctional neural circuit. Nat Neurosci. 12(10):1308-16.
Publication date: October, 2009
The detection of approaching objects, such as looming predators, is necessary for survival. Which neurons and circuits mediate this function? We combined genetic labeling of cell types, two-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and theoretical modeling to address this question. We identify an approach-sensitive ganglion cell type in the mouse retina, resolve elements of its afferent neural circuit, and describe how these confer approach sensitivity on the ganglion cell. The circuit's essential building block is a rapid inhibitory pathway: it selectively suppresses responses to non-approaching objects. This rapid inhibitory pathway, which includes AII amacrine cells connected to bipolar cells through electrical synapses, was previously described in the context of night-time vision. In the daytime conditions of our experiments, the same pathway conveys signals in the reverse direction. The dual use of a neural pathway in different physiological conditions illustrates the efficiency with which several functions can be accommodated in a single circuit.
 
Santini F., Wetzel S.G., Bock J., Markl M., Scheffler K. (2009) Time-resolved three-dimensional (3D) phase-contrast (PC) balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP). Magn Reson Med. 62(4):966-74.
Publication date: October, 2009
In this study the feasibility of a time-resolved, three-dimensional (3D), three-directional flow-sensitive balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) sequence is demonstrated. Due to its high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) this type of sequence is particularly effective for acquisition of blood and CSF flow velocities. Flow sensitivity was achieved with the phase-contrast (PC) technique, implementing a custom algorithm for calculation of optimal gradient parameters. Techniques to avoid the most important sources of bSSFP-related artifacts (including distortion due to eddy currents and signal voids due to flow-related steady-state disruption) are also presented. The technique was validated by means of a custom flow phantom, and in vivo experiments on blood and CSF were performed to demonstrate the suitability of this sequence for human studies. Accurate depiction of blood flow in the cerebral veins and of CSF flow in the cervical portion of the neck was obtained. Possible applications of this technique might include the study of CSF flow patterns, direct in vivo study of pathologies such as hydrocephalus and Chiari malformation, and validation for the existing CSF circulation model.
 
Wächter T., Weiss D., Breit S., Gasser T., Krüger R., Gharabaghi A. (2009) Severe muscular fasciculations as an uncommon side-effect due to microdefect of an extension wire in deep brain stimulation. Mov Disord. 2009 Oct 30;24(14):2161-2. PubMed PMID: 19705359.
Publication date: October, 2009
 
Donner T. H., Siegel M., Fries P., Engel A. K. (2009) Build-up of choice-predictive activity in human motor cortex during perceptual decision-making. Current Biology 19:1581-1585
Publication date: September, 2009
 
Vaadia E., Birbaumer N. (2009) Grand challenges of brain computer interfaces in the years to come. Front Neurosci. 3(2):151-4
Publication date: September, 2009
 
Homma R., Baker B.J., Jin L., Garaschuk O., et al. (2009) Wide-field and two-photon imaging of brain activity with voltage- and calcium-sensitive dyes. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 364(1529):2453-67.
Publication date: September, 2009
This review presents three examples of using voltage- or calcium-sensitive dyes to image the activity of the brain. Our aim is to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each method with particular reference to its application to the study of the brainstem. Two of the examples use wide-field (one-photon) imaging; the third uses two-photon scanning microscopy. Because the measurements have limited signal-to-noise ratio, the paper also discusses the methodological aspects that are critical for optimizing the signal. The three examples are the following. (i) An intracellularly injected voltage-sensitive dye was used to monitor membrane potential in the dendrites of neurons in in vitro preparations. These experiments were directed at understanding how individual neurons convert complex synaptic inputs into the output spike train. (ii) An extracellular, bath application of a voltage-sensitive dye was used to monitor population signals from different parts of the dorsal brainstem. We describe recordings made during respiratory activity. The population signals indicated four different regions with distinct activity correlated with inspiration. (iii) Calcium-sensitive dyes can be used to label many individual cells in the mammalian brain. This approach, combined with two-photon microscopy, made it possible to follow the spike activity in an in vitro brainstem preparation during fictive respiratory rhythms. The organic voltage- and ion-sensitive dyes used today indiscriminatively stain all of the cell types in the preparation. A major effort is underway to develop fluorescent protein sensors of activity for selectively staining individual cell types.
 
Münch T.A., da Silveira R.A., Siegert S., Viney T.J., Awatramani G.B., Roska B. (2009) Approach sensitivity in the retina processed by a multifunctional neural circuit Nature Neuroscience 12:1308-16
Publication date: September, 2009
The detection of approaching objects, such as looming predators, is necessary for survival. Which neurons and circuits mediate this function? We combined genetic labeling of cell types, two-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and theoretical modeling to address this question. We identify an approach-sensitive ganglion cell type in the mouse retina, resolve elements of its afferent neural circuit, and describe how these confer approach sensitivity on the ganglion cell. The circuit's essential building block is a rapid inhibitory pathway: it selectively suppresses responses to non-approaching objects. This rapid inhibitory pathway, which includes AII amacrine cells connected to bipolar cells through electrical synapses, was previously described in the context of night-time vision. In the daytime conditions of our experiments, the same pathway conveys signals in the reverse direction. The dual use of a neural pathway in different physiological conditions illustrates the efficiency with which several functions can be accommodated in a single circuit.
 
Berens P. (2009) CircStat: A Matlab Toolbox for Circular Statistics J Stat Softw 31(10):1-21.
Publication date: September, 2009
 
Jäkel F., Schölkopf B., Wichmann F.A. (2009) Does cognitive science need kernels? Trends Cogn Sci. 13(9):381-8. Epub 2009 Sep 2.
Publication date: September, 2009
Kernel methods are among the most successful tools in machine learning and are used in challenging data analysis problems in many disciplines. Here we provide examples where kernel methods have proven to be powerful tools for analyzing behavioral data, especially for identifying features in categorization experiments. We also demonstrate that kernel methods relate to perceptrons and exemplar models of categorization. Hence, we argue that kernel methods have neural and psychological plausibility, and theoretical results concerning their behavior are therefore potentially relevant for human category learning. In particular, we believe kernel methods have the potential to provide explanations ranging from the implementational via the algorithmic to the computational level.
 
Mallot, H. A., Basten K (2009) Embodied spatial cognition: biological and artificial systems. Image and Vision Computing 27:1658-1670
Publication date: September, 2009
 
Wiener J.M., Ehbauer N.N., Mallot H.A. (2009) Planning paths to multiple targets: memory involvement and planning heuristics in spatial problem solving. Psychol Res. 73(5):644-58.
Publication date: September, 2009
For large numbers of targets, path planning is a complex and computationally expensive task. Humans, however, usually solve such tasks quickly and efficiently. We present experiments studying human path planning performance and the cognitive processes and heuristics involved. Twenty-five places were arranged on a regular grid in a large room. Participants were repeatedly asked to solve traveling salesman problems (TSP), i.e., to find the shortest closed loop connecting a start location with multiple target locations. In Experiment 1, we tested whether humans employed the nearest neighbor (NN) strategy when solving the TSP. Results showed that subjects outperform the NN-strategy, suggesting that it is not sufficient to explain human route planning behavior. As a second possible strategy we tested a hierarchical planning heuristic in Experiment 2, demonstrating that participants first plan a coarse route on the region level that is refined during navigation. To test for the relevance of spatial working memory (SWM) and spatial long-term memory (LTM) for planning performance and the planning heuristics applied, we varied the memory demands between conditions in Experiment 2. In one condition the target locations were directly marked, such that no memory was required; a second condition required participants to memorize the target locations during path planning (SWM); in a third condition, additionally, the locations of targets had to retrieved from LTM (SWM and LTM). Results showed that navigation performance decreased with increasing memory demands while the dependence on the hierarchical planning heuristic increased.
 
Rochefort N.L., Garaschuk O., Milos R.I., Narushima M., Marandi N., Pichler B., Kovalchuk Y., Konnerth A. (2009) Sparsification of neuronal activity in the visual cortex at eye-opening. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(35):15049-54.
Publication date: September, 2009
Eye-opening represents a turning point in the function of the visual cortex. Before eye-opening, the visual cortex is largely devoid of sensory inputs and neuronal activities are generated intrinsically. After eye-opening, the cortex starts to integrate visual information. Here we used in vivo two-photon calcium imaging to explore the developmental changes of the mouse visual cortex by analyzing the ongoing spontaneous activity. We found that before eye-opening, the activity of layer 2/3 neurons consists predominantly of slow wave oscillations. These waves were first detected at postnatal day 8 (P8). Their initial very low frequency (0.01 Hz) gradually increased during development to approximately 0.5 Hz in adults. Before eye-opening, a large fraction of neurons (>75%) was active during each wave. One day after eye-opening, this dense mode of recruitment changed to a sparse mode with only 36% of active neurons per wave. This was followed by a progressive decrease during the following weeks, reaching 12% of active neurons per wave in adults. The possible role of visual experience for
this process of sparsification was investigated by analyzing dark-reared mice. We found that sparsification also occurred in these mice, but that the switch from a dense to a sparse activity pattern was delayed by 3-4 days as compared with normally-reared mice. These results reveal a modulatory contribution of visual experience during the first days after eye-opening, but an overall dominating role of intrinsic factors. We propose that the transformation in network activity from dense to sparse is a prerequisite for the changed cortical function at eye-opening.
 
Eisele Y.S., Bolmont T., Heikenwalder M., Langer F., Jacobson L.H., Yan Z.X., Roth K., Aguzzi A., Staufenbiel M., Walker L.C., Jucker M. (2009) Induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis: intracerebral versus systemic Abeta inoculation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106(31):12926-31.
Publication date: August, 2009
Despite the importance of the aberrant polymerization of Abeta in the early pathogenic cascade of Alzheimer's disease, little is known about the induction of Abeta aggregation in vivo. Here we show that induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis can be achieved in many different brain areas of APP23 transgenic mice through the injection of dilute Abeta-containing brain extracts. Once the amyloidogenic process has been exogenously induced, the nature of the induced Abeta-deposition is determined by the brain region of the host. Because these observations are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism, we then investigated whether cerebral beta-amyloidosis also can be induced by peripheral and systemic inoculations or by the intracerebral implantation of stainless steel wires previously coated with minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain extract. Results reveal that oral, intravenous, intraocular, and intranasal inoculations
yielded no detectable induction of cerebral beta-amyloidosis in APP23 transgenic mice. In contrast, transmission of cerebral beta-amyloidosis through the Abeta-contaminated steel wires was demonstrated. Notably, plasma sterilization, but not boiling of the wires before implantation, prevented the induction of
beta-amyloidosis. Our results suggest that minute amounts of Abeta-containing brain material in direct contact with the CNS can induce cerebral beta-amyloidosis, but that systemic cellular mechanisms of prion uptake and transport to the CNS may not apply to Abeta
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2009) Bio-inspired approach for the recognition of goal-directed hand actions. Intl. Conference on Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns (CAIP), Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5702 714-722
Publication date: August, 2009
 
Dubischar-Krivec A.M., Neumann N., Poustka F., Braun C., Birbaumer N., Bölte S. (2009) Calendar calculating in savants with autism and healthy calendar calculators. Psychol Med. 39(8):1355-63. Epub 2008 Oct 22.
Publication date: August, 2009
BACKGROUND: Calendar calculation is the ability to quickly name the day that a given date falls on. Previous research has suggested that savant calendar calculation is based on rote memory and the use of rule-based arithmetic skills. The objective of this study was to identify the cognitive processes that distinguish calendar calculation in savant individuals from healthy calendar calculators.

METHOD: Savant calendar calculators with autism (ACC, n=3), healthy calendar calculators (HCC, n=3), non-savant subjects with autism (n=6) and healthy calendar calculator laymen (n=18) were included in the study. All participants calculated dates of the present (current month). In addition, ACC and HCC also calculated dates of the past and future 50 years.

RESULTS: ACC showed shorter reaction times and fewer errors than HCC and non-savant subjects with autism, and significantly fewer errors than healthy calendar calculator laymen when calculating dates of the present. Moreover, ACC performed faster and more accurate than HCC regarding past dates. However, no differences between ACC and HCC were detected for future date calculation.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings may imply distinct calendar calculation strategies in ACC and HCC, with HCC relying on calendar regularities for all types of dates and an involvement of (rote) memory in ACC when processing dates of the past and the present.
 
Steinbrink C., Ackermann H., Lachmann T., Riecker A. (2009) Contribution of the anterior insula to temporal auditory processing deficits in developmental dyslexia. Hum Brain Mapp. 30(8):2401-11.
Publication date: August, 2009
Developmental dyslexia has been assumed to arise from general auditory deficits, compromising rapid temporal integration both of linguistic and nonlinguistic acoustic stimuli. Because the effort of auditory temporal processing of speech and nonspeech test materials may depend on presentation rate, fMRI measurements were performed in dyslexics and controls during passive listening to series of syllable and click sounds, using a parametric approach. Controls showed a decrease of hemodynamic brain activation within the right and an increase within the left anterior insula as a function of the presentation rate both of click as well as syllable trains. By contrast, dyslexics exhibited this profile of hemodynamic responses under the nonspeech condition only. As concerns syllables, activation in dyslexics did not depend on presentation rate. Moreover, a subtraction analysis of hemodynamic main effects across conditions and groups revealed decreased activation both of the left and right anterior insula in dyslexics compared to controls during application both of click and syllables. These results indicate, in line with preceding studies, that the insula of both hemispheres is involved in auditory temporal processing of nonlinguistic auditory stimuli and demonstrate, furthermore, that these operations of intrasylvian cortex also extend to the linguistic domain. In addition, our data suggest that the anterior insula represents an important neural correlate of deficient temporal processing of speech and nonspeech sounds in dyslexia.
 
Ulrich R., Vorberg D. (2009) Estimating the difference limen in 2AFC tasks: pitfalls and improved estimators. Atten Percept Psychophys. 71(6):1219-27.
Publication date: August, 2009
Discrimination performance is often assessed by measuring the difference limen (DL; or just noticeable difference) in a two-alternative forced choice (2AFC) task. Here, we show that the DL estimated from 2AFC percentage-correct data is likely to systematically under- or overestimate true discrimination performance if order effects are present. We show how pitfalls with the 2AFC task may be avoided and suggest a novel approach for analyzing 2AFC data.
 
Marco-Pallarés J, Cucurell D, Cunillera T, Krämer UM, Camara E, Nager W, et al. (2009) Genetic variability in the dopamine system (dopamine receptor D4, catechol-O-methyltransferase) modulates neurophysiological responses to gains and losses. Biol Psychiatry. 66(2):154-61. Epub 2009 Feb 28.
Publication date: July, 2009
BACKGROUND:
Interindividual variability in the processing of reward might be partially explained by genetic differences in the dopamine system. Here, we study whether brain responses (event-related potentials [ERPs], oscillatory activity) to monetary gains and losses in normal human subjects are modulated as a function of two dopaminergic polymorphisms (catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT] valine [Val]158methionine [Met], dopamine receptor D4 [DRD4] single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] -521).

METHODS:
Forty participants homozygous for the different alleles of both polymorphisms were selected from a larger population to assess the main effects and interactions. Based on the phasic/tonic dopamine hypothesis, we expected increased brain responses to losses and gains in participants homozygous for the Val/Val variant of the COMT polymorphism (related to higher enzyme activity).

RESULTS:
The medial frontal negativity (MFN) of the ERP and the increase in beta power for gains were enhanced for participants homozygous for the COMT ValVal allele when compared with homozygous MetMet participants. In contrast, no modulations in gain- and loss-related brain activity were found to be a function of the DRD4 SNP -521 polymorphism.

CONCLUSIONS:
The results demonstrate the role of the COMT Val/Met polymorphism in the processing of reward, consistent with theoretical explanations that suggest the possible role of dopamine in the MFN and beta power increase generation. In addition, the present results might agree with the phasic/tonic dopamine theory that predicts higher phasic dopamine responses in ValVal participants.
 
Dedek K., Breuninger T., Pérez de Sevilla Müller L., Maxeiner S., Schultz K., Janssen-Bienhold U., Willecke K., Euler T., Weiler R. (2009) A novel type of interplexiform amacrine cell in the mouse retina. Eur J Neurosci. 30(2):217-28
Publication date: July, 2009
 
Tang W., Ehrlich I., Wolff S. B. E., Michalski A.-M., Wölfl S., Lüthi A., Hasan M., Sprengel R. (2009) Faithful expression of multiple proteins via 2A-peptide self-processing: a versatile and reliable method for manipulating brain circuits. J Neurosci 27: 8621-9.
Publication date: July, 2009
 
Schlichtenbrede F.C., Mittmann W., Rensch F., vom Hagen F., Jonas J.B., Euler T. (2009) Toxicity Assessment of intravitreal Triamcinolone and Bevacizumab in an retinal explant mouse model using Two-Photon Microscopy. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. [Epub ahead of print]
Publication date: July, 2009
 
Ethofer T., Kreifelts B., Wiethoff S., Wolf J., Grodd W., Vuilleumier P., Wildgruber D. (2009) Differential influences of emotion, task, and novelty on brain regions underlying the processing of speech melody. J Cogn Neurosci. 21(7):1255-68.
Publication date: July, 2009
We investigated the functional characteristics of brain regions implicated in processing of speech melody by presenting words spoken in either neutral or angry prosody during a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a factorial habituation design. Subjects judged either affective prosody or word class for these vocal stimuli, which could be heard for either the first, second, or third time. Voice-sensitive temporal cortices, as well as the amygdala, insula, and mediodorsal thalami, reacted stronger to angry than to neutral prosody. These stimulus-driven effects were not influenced by the task, suggesting that these brain structures are automatically engaged during processing of emotional information in the voice and operate relatively independent of cognitive demands. By contrast, the right middle temporal gyrus and the bilateral orbito-frontal cortices (OFC) responded stronger during emotion than word classification, but were also sensitive to anger expressed by the voices, suggesting that some perceptual aspects of prosody are also encoded within these regions subserving explicit processing of vocal emotion. The bilateral OFC showed a selective modulation by emotion and repetition, with particularly pronounced responses to angry prosody during the first presentation only, indicating a critical role of the OFC in detection of vocal information that is both novel and behaviorally relevant. These results converge with previous findings obtained for angry faces and suggest a general involvement of the OFC for recognition of anger irrespective of the sensory modality. Taken together, our study reveals that different aspects of voice stimuli and perceptual demands modulate distinct areas involved in the processing of emotional prosody.
 
Ehrlich I., Humeau Y., Grenier F., Ciocchi S., Herry C., Lüthi A. (2009) Amygdala inhibitory circuits and the control of fear memory. Neuron 62: 757-771.
Publication date: June, 2009
 
Treue S., Katzner S. (2009) Visual attention. In: Squire, L. R. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Neuroscience, Volume 10, pp. 243-250. Oxford: Academic Press.
Publication date: June, 2009
 
Joly S., Francke M., Ulbricht E., Beck S., Seeger M., et al. (2009) Cooperative phagocytes: resident microglia and bone marrow immigrants remove dead photoreceptors in retinal lesions. Am J Pathol. 174(6):2310-23. Epub 2009 May 12.
Publication date: June, 2009
Phagocytosis is essential for the removal of photoreceptor debris following retinal injury. We used two mouse models, mice injected with green fluorescent protein-labeled bone marrow cells or green fluorescent protein-labeled microglia, to study the origin and activation patterns of phagocytic cells after acute blue light-induced retinal lesions. We show that following injury, blood-borne macrophages enter the eye via the optic nerve and ciliary body and soon migrate into the injured retinal area. Resident microglia are also activated rapidly throughout the entire retina and adopt macrophage characteristics only in the injured region. Both blood-borne- and microglia-derived macrophages were involved in the phagocytosis of dead photoreceptors. No obvious breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier was observed. Ccl4, Ccl12, Tgfb1, Csf1, and Tnf were differentially expressed in both the isolated retina and the eyecup of wild-type mice. Debris-laden macrophages appeared to leave the retina into the general circulation, suggesting their potential to become antigen-presenting cells. These experiments provide evidence that both local and immigrant macrophages remove apoptotic photoreceptors and cell debris in the injured retina.
 
Szameitat D.P., Alter K., Szameitat A.J., Darwin C.J., Wildgruber D., Dietrich S., Sterr A. (2009) Differentiation of emotions in laughter at the behavioral level. Emotion. 9(3):397-405.
Publication date: June, 2009
Although laughter is important in human social interaction, its role as a communicative signal is poorly understood. Because laughter is expressed in various emotional contexts, the question arises as to whether different emotions are communicated. In the present study, participants had to appraise 4 types of laughter sounds (joy, tickling, taunting, schadenfreude) either by classifying them according to the underlying emotion or by rating them according to different emotional dimensions. The authors found that emotions in laughter (a) can be classified into different emotional categories, and (b) can have distinctive profiles on W. Wundt's (1905) emotional dimensions. This shows that laughter is a multifaceted social behavior that can adopt various emotional connotations. The findings support the postulated function of laughter in establishing group structure, whereby laughter is used either to include or to exclude individuals from group coherence.
 
Tudusciuc O., Nieder A. (2009) Contributions of primate prefrontal and posterior parietal cortices to length and numerosity representation. J Neurophysiol. 101(6):2984-94.
Publication date: June, 2009
The ability to understand and manipulate quantities ensures the survival of animals and humans alike. The frontoparietal network in primates has been implicated in representing, along with other cognitive abilities, abstract quantity. The respective roles of the prefrontal and parietal areas and the way continuous quantities, as opposed to discrete ones, are represented in this network, however, are unknown. We investigated this issue by simultaneously analyzing recorded single-unit activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) of two macaque monkeys while they were engaged in delayed match-to-sample tasks discriminating line length and numerosity. In both areas, we found anatomically intermingled neurons encoding either length, numerosity, or both types of quantities. Even though different sets of neurons coded these quantities, the representation of length and numerosity was similar within the IPS and PFC. Both length and numerosity were coded by tuning functions peaking at the preferred quantity, thus supporting a labeled-line code for continuous and discrete quantity. A comparison of the response characteristics between parietal and frontal areas revealed a larger proportion of IPS neurons representing each quantity type in the early sample phase, in addition to shorter response latencies to quantity for IPS neurons. Moreover, IPS neurons discriminated quantities during the sample phase better than PFC neurons, as quantified by the receiver operating characteristic area. In the memory period, the discharge properties of PFC and IPS neurons were comparable. These single-cell results are in good agreement with functional imaging data from humans and support the notion that representations of continuous and discrete quantities share a frontoparietal substrate, with IPS neurons constituting the putative entry stage of the processing hierarchy.
 
Dimitrov S., Benedict C., Heutling D., Westermann J., Born J., Lange T. (2009) Cortisol and epinephrine control opposing circadian rhythms in T cell subsets. Blood. 113(21):5134-43.
Publication date: May, 2009
Pronounced circadian rhythms in numbers of circulating T cells reflect a systemic control of adaptive immunity whose mechanisms are obscure. Here, we show that circadian variations in T cell subpopulations in human blood are differentially regulated via release of cortisol and catecholamines. Within the CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, naive cells show pronounced circadian rhythms with a daytime nadir, whereas (terminally differentiated) effector CD8(+) T cell counts peak during daytime. Naive T cells were negatively correlated with cortisol rhythms, decreased after low-dose cortisol infusion, and showed highest expression of CXCR4, which was up-regulated by cortisol. Effector CD8(+) T cells were positively correlated with epinephrine rhythms, increased after low-dose epinephrine infusion, and showed highest expression of beta-adrenergic and fractalkine receptors (CX3CR1). Daytime increases in cortisol via CXCR4 probably act to redistribute naive T cells to bone marrow, whereas daytime increases in catecholamines via beta-adrenoceptors and, possibly, a suppression of fractalkine signaling promote mobilization of effector CD8(+) T cells from the marginal pool. Thus, activation of the major stress hormones during daytime favor immediate effector defense but diminish capabilities for initiating adaptive immune responses.
 
Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Thier P., Casile A. (2009) Mirror neurons differentially encode the peripersonal and extrapersonal space of monkeys. Science. 324(5925):403-6.
Publication date: May, 2009
Actions performed by others may have different relevance for the observer, and thus lead to different behavioral responses, depending on the regions of space in which they are executed. We found that in rhesus monkeys, the premotor cortex neurons activated by both the execution and the observation of motor acts (mirror neurons) are differentially modulated by the location in space of the observed motor acts relative to the monkey, with about half of them preferring either the monkey's peripersonal or extrapersonal space. A portion of these spatially selective mirror neurons encode space according to a metric representation, whereas other neurons encode space in operational terms, changing their properties according to the possibility that the monkey will interact with the object. These results suggest that a set of mirror neurons encodes the observed motor acts not only for action understanding, but also to analyze such acts in terms of features that are relevant to generating appropriate behaviors.
 
Endres D., Oram M. (2009) Feature extraction from spike trains with Bayesian binning: 'Latency is where the signal starts'. Journal of Computational Neuroscience, Online first publication. DOI: 10.1007/s10827-009-0157-3
Publication date: May, 2009
 
Tziridis K., Dicke P.W., Thier P. (2009) The role of the monkey dorsal pontine nuclei in goal-directed eye and hand movements. J Neurosci. 29(19):6154-66.
Publication date: May, 2009
Prevailing concepts on the control of goal-directed hand movements (HM) have focused on a network of cortical areas whose early parieto-occipital stages are thought to extract and integrate information on target and hand location, involving subsequent stages in frontal cortex forming and executing movement plans. The substantial experimental results supporting this cortical network" concept for hand movements notwithstanding, the concept clearly needs refinement to account for the surprisingly mild HM disturbances resulting from disconnecting the parieto-occipital from the frontal stages of the network. Clinical observations have suggested the cerebropontocerebellar projection as an alternative pathway for the sensory guidance of HM. As a first step in assessing its role, we explored the pontine nuclei (PN) of rhesus monkeys, trained to make goal-directed hand and eye movements guided by spatial memory. We were indeed able to delineate a distinct cluster of neurons in the rostrodorsal PN, activated by the preparation and the execution of hand reaches, close to but distinct from the region in which saccade-related neurons may be observed. The movement-related activity of HM-related neurons starts earlier than that of saccade-related neurons and both neuron types are usually effector specific, i.e., they respond only to the movement of the preferred effector. This is also the case when motor synergies involving both effectors are executed. Our findings support the notion of a distinct precerebellar, pontine visuomotor channel for hand reaches that is anatomically and functionally largely separated from the one serving eye movements."
 
Kukley M., Dietrich D. (2009) Kainate receptors and signal integration by NG2 glial cells. Neuron Glia Biol. May;5(1-2):13-20.
Publication date: May, 2009
 
Sinz F.H., Gerwinn S., Bethge M. (2009) Characterization of the p-Generalized Normal Distribution Journal of Multivariate Analysis 100(5), 817-820
Publication date: May, 2009
 
Volz K.G., von Cramon D.Y. (2009) How the orbitofrontal cortex contributes to decision-making. A view from neuroscience. Progress in Brain Research. 174:61-71.
Publication date: May, 2009
In the present contribution, the various functional interpretations concerning the putative function of the orbital prefrontal cortex are reviewed since this region and adjacent areas are considered the neural substrate of social behavior in general, and decision-making behavior in particular. This literature review revealed different but related interpretations as to the function of the orbital prefrontal cortex (including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)): the orbital prefrontal areas (a) code the hedonic quality of choice options, (b) are critical for maintaining associative information about expected outcomes in representational memory so that it can be compared and integrated with information about internal states and current goals, (c) serve as a store of implicitly acquired linkages between factual knowledge and bio-regulatory states, including those that constitute feelings and emotions, (d) serve as a detector of potential content that is derived from the critical aspects of the input, that is, the gist information, (e) are crucially involved in the integration of emotional signals in the decision-making process, and (f) may specialize in integrating the external and internal environment. In the last part of this contribution, we try to bring together these varying but related approaches and propose a preliminary working hypothesis with regard to the role of orbital prefrontal areas in decision making.
 
Nienborg H, Cumming B G (2009) Decision-related activity in sensory neurons reflects more than a neuron’s causal effect. Nature, 2009: 459:89-92
Publication date: May, 2009
 
Logothetis N.K., Murayama Y., Augath M., Steffen T., Werner J., Oeltermann A. (2009) How not to study spontaneous activity. Neuroimage. 45(4):1080-9.
Publication date: May, 2009
Brains are restless. We have long known of the existence of a great deal of uninterrupted brain activity that maintains the body in a stable state--from an evolutionary standpoint one of the brain's most ancient tasks. But intrinsic, ongoing activity is not limited to subcortical, life-maintaining structures; cortex, too, is remarkably active even in the absence of a sensory stimulus or a pecific behavioral task. This is evident both in its enormous energy consumption at rest and in the large, spontaneous but coherent fluctuations of neural activity that spread across different areas. Not surprisingly, a growing number of electrophysiological and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies are appearing that report on various aspects of the brain's spontaneous activity or 'default mode' of operation. One recent study reports results from simultaneously combined electrophysiological and fMRI measurements in the monkey visual cortex (Shmuel, A., Leopold, D.A., 2008. Neuronal correlates of spontaneous fluctuations in fMRI signals in monkey visual cortex: implications for functional connectivity at rest. Hum. Brain Mapp. 29, 751-761). The authors claim to be able to demonstrate correlations between slow fluctuations in blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signals and concurrent fluctuations in the underlying, locally measured neuronal activity. They even go on to speculate that the fluctuations display wave-like spatiotemporal patterns across cortex. In the present report, however, we re-analyze the data presented in that study and demonstrate that the measurements were not actually taken during rest. Visual cortex was subject to almost imperceptible but physiologically clearly detectable flicker induced by the visual stimulator. An examination of the power spectral density of the neural responses and the neurovascular impulse response function shows that such imperceptible flicker strongly suppresses the slow oscillations and changes the degree of covariance between neural and vascular signals. In addition, a careful analysis of the spatiotemporal patterns demonstrates that no slow waves of activity exist in visual cortex. Instead, the presented wave data reflect differences in signal-to-noise ratio at various cortical sites due to local differences in vascularization. In this report, assuming that the term 'spontaneous activity' refers to intrinsic physiological processes at the absence of sensory inputs or motor outputs, we discuss the need for careful selection of experimental protocols and of examining the degree to which the activation of sensory areas might influence the cortical or subcortical processes in other brain regions.
 
Bartels A. (2009) Visual perception: converging mechanisms of attention, binding, and segmentation? Current Biology, 19(7), R300-302.
Publication date: April, 2009
 
Jacob S.N., Nieder A. (2009) Notation-independent representation of fractions in the human parietal cortex. J Neurosci. 29(14):4652-7.
Publication date: April, 2009
Although the concept of whole numbers is intuitive and well suited for counting and ordering, it is with the invention of fractions that the number system gained precision and flexibility. Absolute magnitude is encoded by single neurons that discharge maximally to specific numbers. However, it is unknown how the ratio of two numbers is represented, whether by processing numerator and denominator in separation, or by extending the analog magnitude code to relative quantity. Using functional MRI adaptation, we now show that populations of neurons in human fronto-parietal cortex are tuned to preferred fractions, generalizing across the format of presentation. After blood oxygen level-dependent signal adaptation to constant fractions, signal recovery to deviant fractions was modulated parametrically as a function of numerical distance between the deviant and adaptation fraction. The distance effect was invariant to changes in notation from number to word fractions and strongest in the anterior intraparietal sulcus, a key region for the processing of whole numbers. These findings demonstrate that the human brain uses the same analog magnitude code to represent both absolute and relative quantity. Our results have implications for mathematical education, which may be tailored to better harness our ability to access automatically a composite quantitative measure.
 
Eichhorn J., Sinz F.H., Bethge M. (2009) Natural Image Coding in V1: How Much Use is Orientation Selectivity? PLoS Computational Biology 5(4:e1000336), 1-16
Publication date: April, 2009
 
Berens P., Velasco M.J. (2009) The circular statistics toolbox for Matlab. MPI Technical Report No. 184
Publication date: April, 2009
 
Euler T., Hausselt S.E., Margolis D.J., Breuninger T., Castell X., Detwiler P.B., Denk W. (2009) Eyecup scope-optical recordings of light stimulus-evoked fluorescence signals in the retina. Pflügers Arch 457:1393-1414. Epub 2008 Nov 21.
Publication date: April, 2009
 
Lapid E., Ulrich R., Rammsayer T. (2009) Perceptual learning in auditory temporal discrimination: no evidence for a cross-modal transfer to the visual modality. Psychon Bull Rev. 16(2):382-9.
Publication date: April, 2009
Perceptual learning was used to study potential transfer effects in a duration discrimination task. Subjects were trained to discriminate between two empty temporal intervals marked with auditory beeps, using a two-alternative forced choice paradigm. The major goal was to examine whether perceptual learning would generalize to empty intervals that have the same duration but are marked by visual flashes. The experiment also included longer intervals marked with auditory beeps and filled auditory intervals of the same duration as the trained interval, in order to examine whether perceptual learning would generalize to these conditions within the same sensory modality. In contrast to previous findings showing a transfer from the haptic to the auditory modality, the present results do not indicate a transfer from the auditory to the visual modality; but they do show transfers within the auditory modality.
 
Rasch B., Pommer J., Diekelmann S., Born J. (2009) Pharmacological REM sleep suppression paradoxically improves rather than impairs skill memory. Nat Neurosci. 12(4):396-7.
Publication date: April, 2009
Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep has been considered important for consolidation of memories, particularly of skills. Contrary to expectations, we found that REM sleep suppression by administration of selective serotonin or norepinephrine re-uptake inhibitors after training did not impair consolidation of skills or word-pairs in healthy men but rather enhanced gains in finger tapping accuracy together with sleep spindles. Our results indicate that REM sleep as a unitary phenomenon is not required for skill-memory consolidation.
 
Gharabaghi A., Kunath F., Erb M., Saur R., Heckl S., Karnath H.O. (2009) Perisylvian white matter connectivity in the human right hemisphere. BMC Neurosci. 2009 Mar 3;10-15.
Publication date: March, 2009
 
Barliya A., Omlor L., Giese M.A., Flash T. (2009) An analytical formulation of the law of intersegmental coordination during human locomotion. Experimental Brain Research, 193(3):371-385
Publication date: March, 2009
 
Opper M., Bethge M., Macke J.H. (2009) The effect of pairwise neural correlations on global population statistics MPI Technical Report No. 183
Publication date: March, 2009
 
Gerwinn S., Bethge M., Macke J.H. (2009) Bayesian Population Decoding of Spiking Neurons. Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience 3(21), 1-28
Publication date: March, 2009
 
Hofmann M., Pichler B., Schölkopf B., Beyer T. (2009) Towards quantitative PET/MRI: a review of MR-based attenuation correction techniques. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging. 36 Suppl 1:S93-104.
Publication date: March, 2009
INTRODUCTION: Positron emission tomography (PET) is a fully quantitative technology for imaging metabolic pathways and dynamic processes in vivo. Attenuation correction of raw PET data is a prerequisite for quantification and is typically based on separate transmission measurements. In PET/CT attenuation correction, however, is performed routinely based on the available CT transmission data.

OBJECTIVE: Recently, combined PET/magnetic resonance (MR) has been proposed as a viable alternative to PET/CT. Current concepts of PET/MRI do not include CT-like transmission sources and, therefore, alternative methods of PET attenuation correction must be found. This article reviews existing approaches to MR-based attenuation correction (MR-AC). Most groups have proposed MR-AC algorithms for brain PET studies and more recently also for torso PET/MR imaging. Most MR-AC strategies require the use of complementary MR and transmission images, or morphology templates generated from transmission images. We review and discuss these algorithms and point out challenges for using MR-AC in clinical routine.

DISCUSSION: MR-AC is work-in-progress with potentially promising results from a template-based approach applicable to both brain and torso imaging. While efforts are ongoing in making clinically viable MR-AC fully automatic, further studies are required to realize the potential benefits of MR-based motion compensation and partial volume correction of the PET data.
 
Miller J., Beutinger D., Ulrich R. (2009) Visuospatial attention and redundancy gain. Psychol Res. 73(2):254-62. Epub 2008 Dec 9.
Publication date: March, 2009
Two experiments investigated the effect of visuospatial attention on redundancy gain in simple reaction time tasks. In each trial participants were given a central arrow cue indicating where a stimulus would most likely be presented (i.e., upper or lower half of the display in Experiment 1; left or right half of the display in Experiment 2). Then, a single stimulus or two redundant stimuli could be presented in either expected or unexpected locations. Replicating previous findings, responses were faster when stimuli appeared in expected rather than unexpected locations, and they were also faster when two redundant stimuli were presented than when only one was. Critically, redundancy gain was statistically equivalent for stimuli in expected and unexpected locations, suggesting that the effect of redundancy gain arises after the perceptual processes influenced by the allocation of visuospatial attention.
 
Miller J., Ulrich R., Schwarz B. (2009) Why jackknifing yields good latency estimates. Psychophysiology. 46(2):300-12. Epub 2009 Jan 21.
Publication date: March, 2009
We compared individual-participant and jackknife-based methods for scoring the onset latencies of event-related potential (ERP) components using a diffusion process as a model for an ERP. We studied "ramp-like" components in which the true ERP increases or decreases monotonically, except for noise. If the growth rates of such components vary across participants, the jackknife-based measure can easily have only 10%-20% as much error variance as the traditional method, and this advantage is magnified with more participants. We also studied intersection-shaped or "bump-like" components. Jackknifing generally yielded smaller error variances with these components too, especially when the component's peak amplitude varied across participants, but less so if the component's peak latency varied. These results help illuminate the reasons for the superiority of jackknife-based onset latency measures over traditional measures in recent simulations.
 
Wilke M., Staudt M., Juenger H., Grodd W., Braun C., Krägeloh-Mann I. (2009) Somatosensory system in two types of motor reorganization in congenital hemiparesis: topography and function. Hum Brain Mapp. 30(3):776-88.
Publication date: March, 2009
This study investigates the (re-)organization of somatosensory functions following early brain lesions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), passive hand movement was studied. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) were used as complementary methods. fMRI data was analyzed on the first level with regard to topographical variability; second-level group effects as well as the overall integrity of the somatosensory circuitry were also assessed. Subjects with unilateral brain lesions occurring in the third trimester of pregnancy or perinatally with different types of motor reorganization were included: patients with regular, contralateral motor organization following middle cerebral artery strokes (CONTRA(MCA), n = 6) and patients with reorganized, ipsilateral motor functions due to periventricular lesions (IPSI(PL), n = 8). Motor impairment was similar, but sensory impairment was more pronounced in the CONTRA(MCA) group. Using fMRI and MEG, both groups showed a normal pattern with a contralateral somatosensory representation, despite the transhemispherically reorganized primary motor cortex in the IPSI(PL) group, as verified by TMS. Activation topography for the paretic hands was more variable than for the nonparetic hand in both groups. The cortico-cerebellar circuitry was well-preserved in almost all subjects. We conclude that in both models of motor reorganization, no interhemispheric reorganization of somatosensory functions occurred. Also, no relevant intrahemispheric reorganization was observed apart from a higher topographical variability of fMRI activations. This preserved pattern of somatosensory organization argues in favor of a differential lesion effect on motor and somatosensory functions and demonstrates a limited compensatory potential for the latter.
 
Kayser C., Montemurro M.A., Logothetis N.K., Panzeri S. (2009) Spike-phase coding boosts and stabilizes information carried by spatial and temporal spike patterns. Neuron. 61(4):597-608.
Publication date: February, 2009
Several neural codes have been proposed in order to explain how neurons encode sensory information. Here we tested the hypothesis that different codes might be employed concurrently and provide complementary stimulus information. Quantifying the information encoded about natural sounds in the auditory cortex of alert animals, we found that temporal spike-train patterns and spatial populations were both highly informative. However, the relative phase of slow ongoing rhythms at which these (temporal or population) responses occurred provided much additional and complementary information. Such nested codes combining spike-train patterns with the phase of firing were not only most informative, but also most robust to sensory noise added to the stimulus. Our findings suggest that processing in sensory cortices could rely on the concurrent use of several codes that combine information across different spatiotemporal scales. In addition, they propose a role of slow cortical rhythms in stabilizing sensory representations by reducing effects of noise.
 
Mölle M., Born J. (2009) Hippocampus whispering in deep sleep to prefrontal cortex--for good memories? Neuron. 61(4):496-8.
Publication date: February, 2009
Enduring episodic memories are thought to be formed in a dialog between hippocampus and neocortex promoting the redistribution of newly encoded memories from hippocampal to neocortical stores. In this issue of Neuron, Wierzynski et al. report that during slow wave sleep (SWS), driven by hippocampal sharp wave-ripple bursts, cells in prefrontal cortex fire consistently within 100 ms after hippocampal cells, i.e., a time window that allows for synaptic plastic changes in the neocortical cells. These observations corroborate evidence for a hippocampo-to-neocortical transfer of memories taking place during SWS.
 
Zacchigna S., Oh H., Wilsch-Bräuninger M., Missol-Kolka E., Jászai J., et al. (2009) Loss of the cholesterol-binding protein prominin-1/CD133 causes disk dysmorphogenesis and photoreceptor degeneration. J Neurosci. 29(7):2297-308.
Publication date: February, 2009
Prominin-1/CD133 (Prom-1) is a commonly used marker of neuronal, vascular, hematopoietic and other stem cells, yet little is known about its biological role and importance in vivo. Here, we show that loss of Prom-1 results in progressive degeneration of mature photoreceptors with complete loss of vision. Despite the expression of Prom-1 on endothelial progenitors, photoreceptor degeneration was not attributable to retinal vessel defects, but caused by intrinsic photoreceptor defects in disk formation, outer segment morphogenesis, and associated with visual pigment sorting and phototransduction abnormalities. These findings shed novel insight on how Prom-1 regulates neural retinal development and phototransduction in vertebrates.
 
Hafed Z.M., Goffart L., Krauzlis R. J. (2009) A neural mechanism for microsaccade generation in the primate superior colliculus. Science, Vol. 323, No. 5916, pp. 940-943.
Publication date: February, 2009
During fixation, the eyes are not still but often exhibit microsaccadic movements. The function of microsaccades is controversial, largely because the neural mechanisms responsible for their generation are unknown. Here, we show that the superior colliculus (SC), a retinotopically organized structure involved in voluntary-saccade target selection, plays a causal role in microsaccade generation. Neurons in the foveal portion of the SC increase their activity before and during microsaccades with sizes of only a few minutes of arc and exhibit selectivity for the direction and amplitude of these movements. Reversible inactivation of these neurons significantly reduces microsaccade rate without otherwise compromising fixation. These results, coupled with computational modeling of SC activity, demonstrate that microsaccades are controlled by the SC and explain the link between microsaccades and visual attention.
 
Seymour K., Clifford C.W.G., Logothetis N.K., Bartels A. (2009) The coding of colour, motion and their conjunction in human visual cortex. Current Biology, 19(3), p.177-83.
Publication date: February, 2009
 
Fiedler A., Schröter H., Ulrich R. (2009) No evidence for a late locus of task switch effects. Brain Res.1253:74-80. Epub 2008 Dec 9.
Publication date: February, 2009
When participants are asked to switch from one task to another, reaction time is longer than in task repetition trials. Current models assume that switch costs are located either at the perceptual stage or at the response selection stage. Contrary to this assumption, Hsieh and Liu ([2005. The nature of switch cost: task set configuration or carry-over effect? Cogn. Brain Res. 22,165-175]) found that task switching affects the response-locked lateralized readiness potential and thus provided evidence for a motor locus of switch costs. We hypothesized that this finding may have been due to methodological artefacts. In order to test this hypothesis, we replicated the experiment by Hsieh and Liu (2005) but avoided some potential methodological artefacts of their study. Our results showed a clear effect of task switching on the stimulus-locked lateralized readiness potential but no effect on the response-locked lateralized readiness potential. Thus, the present study questions the evidence for a late, motor locus of task switch effects but rather indicates a locus at the response selection stage.
 
Breit S., Wächter T., Schöls L., Gasser T., et al. (2009) Effective thalamic deep brain stimulation for neuropathic tremor in a patient with severe demyelinating neuropathy. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 80(2):235-6.
Publication date: February, 2009
Postural and action tremor in peripheral neuropathy is characteristic of Roussy-Levy syndrome. A patient with a severe demyelinating neuropathy and disabling neuropathic tremor successfully treated by deep brain stimulation (DBS) is reported. Disease onset was at age 63 years with sensory symptoms and slight action tremor. Within the following 9 years a severe, drug resistant, postural and action tremor developed rendering the patient unable to feed himself. At age 72 years the patient was treated by bilateral DBS of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus, with a useful 30% reduction in tremor. The clinical benefit of the stimulation remained stable over a 1 year postoperative observation period.
 
Garsoffky B., Schwan S., Huff M. (2009) Canonical views of dynamic scenes. J Exp Psychol Hum Percept Perform. 35(1):17-27.
Publication date: February, 2009
The visual recognition of dynamic scenes was examined. The authors hypothesized that the notion of canonical views, which has received strong empirical support for static objects, also holds for dynamic scenes. In Experiment 1, viewpoints orthogonal to the main axis of movement in the scene were preferred over other viewpoints, whereas viewpoints in line with the main axis were least preferred. Experiment 2 provided no empirical evidence for a recognition advantage of canonical viewpoints when presented during the initial learning phase, but Experiment 3 showed a cognitive advantage for canonical viewpoints if they were presented as test stimuli during the recognition test. Overall, the findings suggest that on a phenomenological level, viewers are consciously aware of such viewpoints, and, on a cognitive level, viewers benefit from canonical viewpoints in terms of recognition accuracy.

Copyright 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
 
Hertrich I., Mathiak K., Lutzenberger W., Ackermann H. (2009) Time course of early audiovisual interactions during speech and nonspeech central auditory processing: a magnetoencephalography study. J Cogn Neurosci. 21(2):259-74.
Publication date: February, 2009
Cross-modal fusion phenomena suggest specific interactions of auditory and visual sensory information both within the speech and nonspeech domains. Using whole-head magnetoencephalography, this study recorded M50 and M100 fields evoked by ambiguous acoustic stimuli that were visually disambiguated to perceived /ta/ or /pa/ syllables. As in natural speech, visual motion onset preceded the acoustic signal by 150 msec. Control conditions included visual and acoustic nonspeech signals as well as visual-only and acoustic-only stimuli. (a) Both speech and nonspeech motion yielded a consistent attenuation of the auditory M50 field, suggesting a visually induced "preparatory baseline shift" at the level of the auditory cortex. (b) Within the temporal domain of the auditory M100 field, visual speech and nonspeech motion gave rise to different response patterns (nonspeech: M100 attenuation; visual /pa/: left-hemisphere M100 enhancement; /ta/: no effect). (c) These interactions could be further decomposed using a six-dipole model. One of these three pairs of dipoles (V270) was fitted to motion-induced activity at a latency of 270 msec after motion onset, that is, the time domain of the auditory M100 field, and could be attributed to the posterior insula. This dipole source responded to nonspeech motion and visual /pa/, but was found suppressed in the case of visual /ta/. Such a nonlinear interaction might reflect the operation of a binary distinction between the marked phonological feature "labial" versus its underspecified competitor "coronal." Thus, visual processing seems to be shaped by linguistic data structures even prior to its fusion with auditory information channel.
 
Ecker A.S., Berens P., Keliris G.A., Bethge M., Logothetis N.K., Tolias A.S. (2009) Decorrelated neuronal firing in cortical microcircuits. Science. 327(5965):584-7.
Publication date: January, 2009
Correlated trial-to-trial variability in the activity of cortical neurons is thought to reflect the functional connectivity of the circuit. Many cortical areas are organized into functional columns, in which neurons are believed to be densely connected and to share common input. Numerous studies report a high degree of correlated variability between nearby cells. We developed chronically implanted multitetrode arrays offering unprecedented recording quality to reexamine this question in the primary visual cortex of awake macaques. We found that even nearby neurons with similar orientation tuning show virtually no correlated variability. Our findings suggest a refinement of current models of cortical microcircuit architecture and function: Either adjacent neurons share only a few percent of their inputs or, alternatively, their activity is actively decorrelated.
 
Katzner S., Nauhaus I., Benucci A., Bonin V., Ringach D.L., Carandini M. (2009) Local origin of field potentials in visual cortex. Neuron, 61(1):35-41.
Publication date: January, 2009
 
Prsa M., Dash S., Catz N., Dicke P.W., Thier P. (2009) Characteristics of responses of Golgi cells and mossy fibers to eye saccades and saccadic adaptation recorded from the posterior vermis of the cerebellum. Neurosci. 29(1):250-62.
Publication date: January, 2009
The anatomical organization of the granular layer of the cerebellum suggests an important function for Golgi cells (GC) in the pathway conveying mossy fiber (MF) afferents to Purkinje cells. Based on such anatomic observations, early proposals have attributed a role in gain control" for GCs, a function disputed by recent investigations, which assert that GCs instead contribute to oscillatory mechanisms. However, conclusive physiological evidence based on studies of cerebellum-dependent behavior supporting/dismissing the gain control proposition has been lacking as of yet. We addressed the possible function of this interneuron by recording the activity of a large number of both MFs and GCs during saccadic eye movements from the same cortical area of the monkey cerebellum, namely the oculomotor vermis (OMV). Our cellular identification conformed to previously established criteria, mainly to juxtacellular labeling studies correlating physiological parameters with cell morphology. Response patterns of both MFs and GCs were highly heterogeneous. MF discharges correlated linearly with eye saccade metrics and timing, showing directional preference and precise direction tuning. In contrast, GC discharges did not correlate strongly with the metrics or direction of movement. Their discharge properties were also unaffected by motor learning during saccadic adaptation. The OMV therefore receives a barrage of information about eye movements from different oculomotor areas over the MF pathway, which is not reflected in GCs. The unspecificity of GCs has important implications for the intricacies of neuronal processing in the granular layer, clearly discrediting their involvement in gain control and instead suggesting a more secluded role for these interneurons."
 
Wiecki T.V., Riedinger K., Ameln-Mayerhofer A., Schmidt W.J., Frank M.J. (2009) A neurocomputational account of catalepsy sensitization induced by D2 receptor blockade in rats: Psychopharmacology 204 (2):265-77
Publication date: 2009
 
Sinz F.H., Bethge M. (2009) The Conjoint Effect of Divisive Normalization and Orientation Selectivity on Redundancy Reduction. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 21: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference, 1521-1528. (Eds.) Koller, D., D. Schuurmans, Y. Bengio, L. Bottou
Publication date: 2009
 
Giese M.A., Mukovskiy A., Park A., Omlor L., Slotine J.J.E. (2009) Real-Time Synthesis of Body Movements Based on Learned Primitives. In Cremers D, Rosenhahn B, Yuille A L (eds): 'Statistical and Geometrical Approaches to Visual Motion Analysis', Springer Verlag, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 5604, 107-127
Publication date: 2009
 
Curio C., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2009) Dynamic Faces: Insights from Experiments and Computation. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, accepted
Publication date: 2009
 
Sümer S., Denzinger A., Schnitzler H.U. (2009) Spatial unmasking in the echolocating Big Brown Bat, Eptesicus fuscus. J Comp Physiol A in press (DOI: 10.1007/s00359-009-0424-9)
Publication date: 2009
 
Schnitzler H.U., Pilz P., Miller L.A., Verfuß U.K. (2009) Echolocation by two foraging harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). J Experim Biol in press (JEXBIO/2008/022137)
Publication date: 2009
 
Ehrlich I., Lüthi A. (2009) New aids for learning and memory. Nat Neurosci 12: 3.
Publication date: 2009
 
Casile A., Dayan E., Caggiano V., Hendler T., Flash T., Giese M.A. (2009) Neuronal encoding of human kinematic invariants during action observation. Cerebral Cortex (in press)
Publication date: 2009
 
Curio C., Giese M.A., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H. (2009) Dynamic facial action recognition probed by visual adaption. In Curio C, Bülthoff HH, Giese MA (eds): 'Dynamic Faces: Insights from Experiments and Computation', 20, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (in press)
Publication date: 2009
 
Endres D., Földiák P. (2009) Interpreting the neural code with Formal Concept Analysis. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 21, pp. 425-432, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA
Publication date: 2009
 
Endres D., Schindelin J., Földiák P., Oram M. (2009) Modelling spike trains and extracting response latency with Bayesian binning. Journal of Physiology (in press)
Publication date: 2009
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2009) View-independent recognition of grasping actions with coetex-inspired model. Intl Conference on Humaniod Robots, Paris, (in press)
Publication date: 2009
 
Serre T., Giese M.A. (2009) Elements for a neural theory of the processing of dynamic faces. In: Curio C, Bülthoff HH, Giese MA (eds): 'Dynamic Faces: Insights from Experiments and Computation', 20, MIT Press, Cambridge MA, (in press)
Publication date: 2009
 
Timmann D., Konczak J., Ilg W., Donchin O., Hermsdörfer J., Gizewski E.R., Schoch B. (2009) Current advances in lesion-symptom mapping of human cerebellum. Neurosience 162:836-851
Publication date: 2009
 
Schwarz C. (2009) Aktuelle Informationstechnische Probleme Sensorischer Kortikaler Neuroprothesen. In Neurotechnik und Neuroethik (edited by Rosenzweig R). Mentis Verlag, Paderborn.
Publication date: 2009
 
Nauhaus I., Busse L., Carandini M., Ringach D.L. (2009) Stimulus contrast modulates functional connectivity in visual cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 12(1):70–76.
Publication date: 2009
 
Berens P., Gerwinn S., Ecker A.S., Bethge M. (2009) Neurometric function analysis of population codes. In: Bengio Y, Schuurmans D, Lafferty J, Williams C, Culotta A, editors. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 22: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference 90-98.
Publication date: 2009
 
Braun C., Demarchi G., Papadelis C. (2009) Cortical Reorganization after Damage of the Central Nervous System. J Neuro-Ophthalmology 33:142-148.
Publication date: 2009
 
Brugger D., Rosenstiel W., Bogdan M. (2009) Online SVR training by solving the primal optimization problem. Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE Signal processing Society Workshop, 978-984.
Publication date: 2009

 
Cress U., Kimmerle J., Hesse F.W. (2009) Impact of temporal extension, synchronicity, and group size on computersupported information exchange. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(3):731-737
Publication date: 2009
 
Dehler J., Bodemer D., Buder J., Hesse F.W. (2009) Providing group knowledge awareness in computer-supported collaborative learning: Insights into learning mechanisms. Research and Practice in Technology Enhanced Learning. 4(2):111-132.
Publication date: 2009
 
Eichhoff G., Kovalchuk Y., Varga Z., Verkhratsky A., Garaschuk O. (2009) In vivo Ca2+ imaging of the living brain using multi cell bolus loading technique. In: Verkhratsky and Petersen, editors. Neuromethods series: Calcium measurements in neural cells. New York: Humana Press. 43:205-220.
Publication date: 2009
 
Feldkaemper M.P., Neascu I., Schaeffel F. (2009) Insulin acts as a powerful stimulator of axial myopia in chicks. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 50(1):13-23. Epub 2008 Jul 3.
Publication date: 2009
PURPOSE: In animal models, it has been shown that the retina can use the defocus of the projected image to control emmetropization. Glucagon may be involved in the sign of defocus detection, at least in chickens. Since glucagon and insulin often have opposite effects in metabolic pathways, the effect of insulin on eye growth was investigated.

METHODS: Chicks were treated with either positive or negative spectacle lenses and intravitreally injected with saline or different amounts of insulin. Refraction, axial length, and corneal curvature were measured. Effects of insulin on vitreal glucose concentration, on retinal ZENK and glucagon mRNA levels, and on the number of ZENK-immunoreactive glucagon amacrine cells were studied.

RESULTS: Insulin injections (0.3 nmol) caused only a small myopic shift in control chicks. When positive lenses were worn, insulin injections (0.3; 0.03 nmol) not only blocked hyperopia but rather induced high amounts of axial myopia. Insulin also enhanced myopia that was induced by negative lenses. Axial elongation was mostly due to an increase in anterior chamber depth and a thickening of the crystalline lens. Insulin temporarily reduced vitreal glucose levels. Insulin increased retinal ZENK mRNA levels, whereas the number of ZENK-immunoreactive glucagon amacrine cells was reduced, a finding that is typically linked to the development of myopia.

CONCLUSIONS: Given that insulin is used in therapy for human metabolic disorders and has been proposed to treat corneal epithelial disease, its powerful myopiagenic effect, which is mostly due to its effects on the optics of the anterior segment of the eye, merits further investigation.
 
Garaschuk O., Griesbeck O. (2009) Monitoring Calcium Levels With Genetically Encoded Indicators. In: Verkhratsky and Petersen, editors. Neuromethods series: Calcium measurements in neural cells. New York: Humana Press. 43:101-117.
Publication date: 2009
 
Gerjets P., Scheiter K., Opfermann M., Hesse F.W., Eysink T.H.S. (2009) Learning with hypermedia: The influence of representational formats and different levels of learner control on performance and learning behavior. Computers in Human Behavior. 25(2):360-370.
Publication date: 2009
 
Häffner M., Fischer E., Federsel P., Fleischer M., Kern D.P. (2009) Electric field aligned growth and characterization of carbon nanotube transistors. GMM Fachbericht 60 – Mikro- Nano-Integration. VDE Verlag GmbH, Berlin und Offenbach.
Publication date: 2009
 
Häffner M., Schneider K., Schuster B.-E., Stamm B., Latteyer F., Fleischer M., et al. (2009) PECVD grown CNTs from ferritin catalyst for neural stimulation microelectrodes. Microelectronic Engineering. In press.
Publication date: 2009
 
Hertrich I., Dietrich S., Moos A., Trouvain J., Ackermann H. (2009) Enhanced speech perception capabilities in a blind listener are associated with activation of fusiform gyrus and primary visual cortex. Neurocase. 15(2):163-70. Epub 2009 Feb 25.
Publication date: 2009
Blind individuals may learn to understand ultra-fast synthetic speech at a rate of up to about 25 syllables per second (syl)/s, an accomplishment by far exceeding the maximum performance level of normal-sighted listeners (8-10 syl/s). The present study indicates that this exceptional skill engages distinct regions of the central-visual system. Hemodynamic brain activation during listening to moderately- (8 syl/s) and ultra-fast speech (16 syl/s) was measured in a blind individual and six normal-sighted controls. Moderately-fast speech activated posterior and anterior 'language zones' in all subjects. Regarding ultra-fast tokens, the controls showed exclusive activation of supratemporal regions whereas the blind participant exhibited enhanced left inferior frontal and temporoparietal responses as well as significant hemodynamic activation of left fusiform gyrus (FG) and right primary visual cortex. Since left FG is known to be involved in phonological processing, this structure, presumably, provides the functional link between the central-auditory and -visual systems.
 
Knipfer K., Mayr E., Zahn C., Schwan S., Hesse F.W. (2009) Computer Support for Knowledge Communication in Science Exhibitions: Novel Perspectives from Research on Collaborative Learning. Educational Research Review. 4:196-209.
Publication date: 2009
 
Lapid E., Ulrich R., Rammsayer T. (2009) Comparisons of two variants of the method of constant stimuli for estimating difference thresholds. Swiss Journal of Psychology. 68:189-192.
Publication date: 2009
 
Ohlendorf A., Schaeffel F. (2009) Contrast adaptation induced by defocus - a possible error signal for emmetropization? Vision Res. 49(2):249-56. Epub 2008 Dec 9.
Publication date: 2009
PURPOSE:
To describe some features of contrast adaptation as induced by imposed positive or negative defocus. To study its time course and selectivity for the sign of the imposed defocus.

METHODS:
Contrast adaptation, CA (here referred to as any change in supra-threshold contrast sensitivity) was induced by presenting a movie to the subjects on a computer screen at 1m distance for 10min, while the right eye was defocused by a trial lens (+4D (n=25); -4D (n=10); -2D (n=11 subjects). The PowerRefractor was used to track accommodation binocularly. Contrast sensitivity at threshold was measured by a method of adjustment with a Gabor patch of 1deg angular subtense, filled with 3.22cyc/deg sine wave grating presented on a computer screen at 1m distance on gray background (33cd/m(2)). Supra-threshold contrast sensitivity was quantified by an interocular contrast matching task, in which the subject had to match the contrast of the sine wave grating seen with the right eye with the contrast of a grating with fixed contrast of 0.1.

RESULTS:
(1) Contrast sensitivity thresholds were not lowered by previous viewing of defocused movies. (2) By wearing positive lenses, the supra-threshold contrast sensitivity in the right eye was raised by about 30% and remained elevated for at least 2min until baseline was reached after about 5min. (3) CA was induced only by positive, but not by negative lenses, even after the distance of the computer screen was taken into account (1m, equivalent to +1D). In five subjects, binocular accommodation was tracked over the full adaptation period. Accommodation appeared to focus the eye not wearing a lens, but short transient switches in focus to the lens wearing eye could not be entirely excluded.

CONCLUSIONS:
Transient contrast adaptation was found at 3.22cyc/deg when positive lenses were worn but not with negative lenses. This asymmetry is intriguing. While it may represent an epiphenomenon of physiological optics, further experiments are necessary to determine whether it could also trace back to differences in CA with defocus of different sign.
 
Ulrich R. (2009) Uncovering unobservable cognitive mechanisms: The contribution of mathematical psychology (pp. 25—41). In: Rösler F, Ranganath C, Röder B, Kluwe RH, editors. Neuroimaging of Human Memory: Linking Cognitive Processes to Neural Systems. New York: Oxford University Press.
Publication date: 2009
 
Wildgruber D., Ethofer T., Grandjean D., Kreifelts B. (2009) A cerebral network model of speech prosody comprehension. International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology. 11:277-281.
Publication date: 2009
 
Zrenner E., Wilke R., Bartz-Schmidt K.U., Gekeler F., Besch D., Benav H., et al. (2009) Subretinal Microelectrode Arrays Allow Blind Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients to Recognize Letters and Combine them to Words. Ieee Conference Proceedings. 2:1049-52.
Publication date: 2009
 
Zrenner E., Wilke R., Sachs H., Bartz-Schmidt K.U., Gekeler F., Besch D., et al. (2009) SUBRETStudy Group. Visual Sensations Mediated By Subretinal Microelectrode Arrays Implanted Into Blind Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients. Biomed Tech. 53:218-20.
Publication date: 2009
 
Nieder A., Dehaene S. (2009) Representation of number in the brain. Annu Rev Neurosci. 32:185-208. Review.
Publication date: 2009
Number symbols have allowed humans to develop superior mathematical skills that are a hallmark of technologically advanced cultures. Findings in animal cognition, developmental psychology, and anthropology indicate that these numerical skills are rooted in nonlinguistic biological primitives. Recent studies in human and nonhuman primates using a broad range of methodologies provide evidence that numerical information is represented and processed by regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal lobes, with the intraparietal sulcus as a key node for the representation of the semantic aspect of numerical quantity.
 
Häffner M., Kemmler M., Löffler R., Vega Gómez B., Fleischer M., Kleiner R., Kölle D., Kern D.P. (2009) Controlling superconducting properties via vortex pinning by regular arrays of vertical carbon nanotubes. Microelectron Eng. 86:895-897.
Publication date: 2009
 
Döring S. (2009) The Logic of Emotional Experience: Noninferentiality and the Problem of Conflict without Contradiction. In: Emotion Review 1:240-247.
Publication date: 2009
 
Roth S., Black M.J. (2009) Fields of Experts. Int J Computer Vision. 82(2):205-229.
Publication date: 2009
 
Krüger J., Lien T.K., Verl A. (2009) Cooperation of Human and Machines in Assembly Lines. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology. 58(2):1-24.
Publication date: 2009
 
Verl A., Heisel U., Walther M., Maier D. (2009) Sensorless Automated Condition Monitoring for the Control of the Predictive Maintenance of Machine Tools. CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology. 58(1):375-8.
Publication date: 2009
2008
 
 
Berens P., Keliris G.A., Ecker A.S., Logothetis N.K., Tolias A.S. (2008) Feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential in primate primary visual cortex. Frontiers in Neuroscience 2(2)
Publication date: December, 2008
 
Birbaumer N., Murguialday A.R., Cohen L. (2008) Brain-computer interface in paralysis. Curr Opin Neurol. 21(6):634-8.
Publication date: December, 2008
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Communication with patients suffering from locked-in syndrome and other forms of paralysis is an unsolved challenge. Movement restoration for patients with chronic stroke or other brain damage also remains a therapeutic problem and available treatments do not offer significant improvements. This review considers recent research in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) as promising solutions to these challenges.
RECENT FINDINGS: Experimentation with nonhuman primates suggests that intentional goal directed movements of the upper limbs can be reconstructed and transmitted to external manipulandum or robotic devices controlled from a relatively small number of microelectrodes implanted into movement-relevant brain areas after some training, opening the door for the development of BCI or brain-machine interfaces in humans. Although noninvasive BCIs using electroencephalographic recordings or event-related-brain-potentials in healthy individuals and patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or stroke can transmit up to 80 bits/min of information, the use of BCIs - invasive or noninvasive - in severely or totally paralyzed patients has met some unforeseen difficulties.
SUMMARY: Invasive and noninvasive BCIs using recordings from nerve cells, large neuronal pools such as electrocorticogram and electroencephalography, or blood flow based measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy show potential for communication in locked-in syndrome and movement restoration in chronic stroke, but controlled phase III clinical trials with larger populations of severely disturbed patients are urgently needed.
 
Siegel M., Donner T. H., Oostenveld R., Fries P., Engel A. K. (2008) Neuronal Synchronization along the Dorsal Visual Pathway Reflects the Focus of Spatial Attention. Neuron 60: 709-719
Publication date: November, 2008
 
Nienborg H (2008) Visual Perception: Interactions between Sensory and Decision Processes. Science (online), 2008: 322: 875
Publication date: November, 2008
 
Ilg W., Giese M.A., Gizewski E.R., Schoch B., Timmann D. (2008) The influence of focal lesions of the cerebellum on the control and adaptation of gait. Brain 131(Pt 11):2913-27.
Publication date: November, 2008
 
Bieri O., Mamisch T.C., Trattnig S., Scheffler K. (2008) Steady state free precession magnetization transfer imaging. Magn Reson Med. 60(5):1261-6.
Publication date: November, 2008
The formerly proposed concept for magnetization transfer imaging (MTI) using balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) image acquisitions is in this work extended to nonbalanced protocols. This allows SSFP-based MTI of targets with high susceptibility variation (such as the musculoskeletal system), or at ultra-high magnetic fields (where balanced SSFP suffers from considerable off-resonance related image degradations). In the first part, SSFP-based MTI in human brain is analyzed based on magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) histograms. High correlations are observed among all different SSFP MTI protocols and thereby ensure proper conceptual extension to nonbalanced SSFP. The second part demonstrates SSFP-based MTI allowing fast acquisition of high resolution volumetric MTR data from human brain and cartilage at low (1.5T) to ultra-high (7.0T) magnetic fields.
 
Ting J.A., D'Souza A., Yamamoto K., Yoshioka T., Hoffman D., Kakei S., Sergio L., Kalaska J., Kawato M., Strick P., Schaal S. (2008) Variational Bayesian least squares: An application to brain-machine interface data. Neural Netw. 21(8):1112-31.
Publication date: October, 2008
An increasing number of projects in neuroscience require statistical analysis of high-dimensional data, as, for instance, in the prediction of behavior from neural firing or in the operation of artificial devices from brain recordings in brain-machine interfaces. Although prevalent, classical linear analysis techniques are often numerically fragile in high dimensions due to irrelevant, redundant, and noisy information. We developed a robust Bayesian linear regression algorithm that automatically detects relevant features and excludes irrelevant ones, all in a computationally efficient manner. In comparison with standard linear methods, the new Bayesian method regularizes against overfitting, is computationally efficient (unlike previously proposed variational linear regression methods, is suitable for data sets with large numbers of samples and a very high number of input dimensions) and is easy to use, thus demonstrating its potential as a drop-in replacement for other linear regression techniques. We evaluate our technique on synthetic data sets and on several neurophysiological data sets. For these neurophysiological data sets we address the question of whether EMG data collected from arm movements of monkeys can be faithfully reconstructed from neural activity in motor cortices. Results demonstrate the success of our newly developed method, in comparison with other approaches in the literature, and, from the neurophysiological point of view, confirms recent findings on the organization of the motor cortex. Finally, an incremental, real-time version of our algorithm demonstrates the suitability of our approach for real-time interfaces between brains and machines.
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Treue S. (2008) Temporal dynamics of neuronal modulation during exogenous and endogenous shifts of visual attention in macaque area MT. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105(42):16380–16385.
Publication date: October, 2008
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Treue S. (2008) Temporal dynamics of neuronal modulation during exogenous and endogenous shifts of visual attention in macaque area MT. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 105(42):16380–16385
Publication date: October, 2008
 
Besch D., Sachs H., Szurman P., et al. (2008) Extraocular surgery for implantation of an active subretinal visual prosthesis with external connections: feasibility and outcome in seven patients. Br J Ophthalmol. 92(10):1361-8. Epub 2008 Jul 28.
Publication date: October, 2008
BACKGROUND: Due to low energy levels in microphotodiode-based subretinal visual prostheses, an external power supply is mandatory. We report on the surgical feasibility and the functional outcome of the extraocular part of an approach to connect a subretinal prosthesis to an extracorporeal connector in the retro-auricular space via a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable.

METHODS: Seven volunteers with retinitis pigmentosa received an active subretinal implant; energy was supplied by gold wires on a trans-sclerally, transchoroidally implanted polyimide foil leading to the lateral orbital rim where it was fixated and connected to a silicone cable. The cable was implanted subperiostally beneath the temporal muscle using a trocar to the retro-auricular space where it penetrated the skin for connection to a stimulator. To avoid subretinal movement of the implant, three tension relief points have been introduced.

RESULTS: All implantations were performed as planned without complications, and no serious adverse events occurred in the postoperative period. Fixation of the implants was stable throughout the entire study duration of 4 weeks; permanent skin penetration proved to be uncomplicated. Motility was minimally restricted in downgaze and ab-/adduction. Explantation was uneventful.

CONCLUSION: The above-described procedure provides a method for stable fixation of a subretinal device with a trans-scleral, transchoroidal cable connection to an extracorporeal connector.
 
Gillner S., Weiss A.M., Mallot H.A. (2008) Visual homing in the absence of feature-based landmark information. Cognition. 109(1):105-22.
Publication date: October, 2008
Despite that fact that landmarks play a prominent role in human navigation, experimental evidence on how landmarks are selected and defined by human navigators remains elusive. Indeed, the concept of a 'landmark' is itself not entirely clear. In everyday language, the term landmark refers to salient, distinguishable, and usually nameable objects, rendering the problem of landmark recognition a special case of the general object recognition problem. In contrast, in the insect and robot literature, this notion of landmarks is often replaced by the 'local position information' [e.g., Trullier, O., Wiener, S., Berthoz, A., & Meyer, J.-A. (1997). Biologically based artificial navigation systems: Review and prospects. Progress in Neurobiology, 51, 483-544], referring to the entire set of sensor readings obtained at one location. This set may then serve as a characteristic of the particular location. Honey bees have been shown to base place recognition and homing on a snapshot-like memory of the place's visual environment, not on the distances to recognized objects [Cartwright, B., & Collett, T. (1983). Landmark learning in bees. Experiments and models. Journal of Comparative Physiology A, 151, 521-543]. A number of theoretical models of snapshot-based homing [e.g., Franz, M., Schölkopf, B., Mallot, H. A., Bülthoff, H. H. (1998). Where did I take that snapshot? Scene-based homing by image matching. Biological Cybernetics, 79, 191-202, Vardy, A., & Möller, R. (2005). Biologically plausible visual homing methods based on optical flow techniques. Connection Science, 17, 47-89] predict that the accuracy of snapshot-based homing should depend on image contrast. For rodent hippocampal place fields, models have been developed using additional image information such as three-dimensional depth and allocentric orientations (e.g., room axes) and are thus less sensitive to image contrast and noise [e.g. Barry, C., Lever, C., Hayman, R., Hartley, T., Burton, S., O'Keefe, J., et al. (2006). The boundary vector cell model of place cell firing and spatial memory. Reviews in the Neurosciences, 17, 71-79]. Here, we study human visual homing in a virtual environment void of objects and readily detected image features. The environment was a circular room with a homogenous colour gradient covering the wall and uniform floor and ceiling. Subjects were able to approach remembered places. Accuracy decreased with colour gradient modulation and room size, in qualitative agreement with the snapshot model but not with other models of place recognition. We conclude that human memory for places can make use of a snapshot algorithm.
 
Vallentin D., Nieder A. (2008) Behavioral and prefrontal representation of spatial proportions in the monkey. Curr Biol. 18(18):1420-5.
Publication date: September, 2008
Primate brains are equipped with evolutionarily old and dedicated neural circuits so that they can grasp absolute quantities, such as the number of items or the length of a line. Absolute magnitude, however, is often not informative enough to guide decisions in conflicting social and foraging situations that require an assessment of quantity ratios. We report that rhesus monkeys can discriminate proportions (1:4, 2:4, 3:4, and 4:4) specified by bars differing in lengths and that they can do so at a precision comparable to that shown by humans; the monkeys thus demonstrate an abstract understanding of proportionality. Moreover, neurons in the lateral prefrontal cortex selectively responded to preferred proportions regardless of the exact physical appearance of the stimuli. These results support the hypothesis that nonhuman primates can judge proportions and utilize the underlying information in behaviorally relevant situations.
 
Busche M.A., Eichhoff G., Adelsberger H., Abramowski D., Wiederhold K.H., Haass C., Staufenbiel M., Konnerth A., Garaschuk O. (2008) Clusters of hyperactive neurons near amyloid plaques in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Science. 321(5896):1686-9.
Publication date: September, 2008
The neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease has been associated with synaptic dismantling and progressive decrease in neuronal activity. We tested this hypothesis in vivo by using two-photon Ca2+ imaging in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease. Although a decrease in neuronal activity was seen in 29% of layer 2/3 cortical neurons, 21% of neurons displayed an unexpected increase in the frequency of spontaneous Ca2+ transients. These hyperactive" neurons were found exclusively near the plaques of amyloid beta-depositing mice. The hyperactivity appeared to be due to a relative decrease in synaptic inhibition. Thus, we suggest that a redistribution of synaptic drive between silent and hyperactive neurons, rather than an overall decrease in synaptic activity, provides a mechanism for the disturbed cortical function in Alzheimer's disease."
 
Elkobi A., Ehrlich I., Belelovsky K., Barki-Harrington L., Rosenblum K. (2008) ERK-dependent PSD-95 induction in the gustatory cortex is necessary for taste learning, but not retrieval. Nat Neurosci 11:1149-51.
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Bethge M., Berens P. (2008) Near-Maximum Entropy Models for Binary Neural Representations of Natural Images. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference, 97-104. (Eds.) Platt, J. C., D. Koller, Y. Singer, S. Roweis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Gerwinn S., Macke J.H. , Seeger M., Bethge M. (2008) Bayesian Inference for Spiking Neuron Models with a Sparsity Prior. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference, 529-536. (Eds.) Platt, J. C., D. Koller, Y. Singer, S. Roweis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Macke J.H. , Zeck G., Bethge M. (2008) Receptive Fields without Spike-Triggering. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference, 969-976. (Eds.) Platt, J. C., D. Koller, Y. Singer, S. Roweis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Sinz F.H., Chapelle O., Agarwal A., Schölkopf B. (2008) An Analysis of Inference with the Universum. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 20: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference, 1369-1376. (Eds.) Platt, J. C., D. Koller, Y. Singer, S. Roweis, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, USA
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Volz K.G., Rübsamen R., von Cramon D.Y. (2008) Cortical regions activated by the subjective sense of perceptual coherence of environmental sounds: A proposal for a neuroscience of intuition. Cognitive, Affective, and Behavioral Neuroscience. 8:318-328.
Publication date: September, 2008
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." In other words, people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. The result is a vague perception of coherence, which subsequently biases thought and behavior accordingly. Within the visual domain, research using paradigms with difficult recognition has suggested that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) serves as a fast detector and predictor of potential content that utilizes coarse facets of the input. To investigate whether the OFC is crucial in biasing task-specific processing, and hence subserves intuitive judgments in various modalities, we used a difficult-recognition paradigm in the auditory domain. Participants were presented with short sequences of distorted, nonverbal, environmental sounds and had to perform a sound categorization task. Imaging results revealed rostral medial OFC activation for such auditory intuitive coherence judgments. By means of a conjunction analysis between the present results and those from a previous study on visual intuitive coherence judgments, the rostral medial OFC was shown to be activated via both modalities. We conclude that rostral OFC activation during intuitive coherence judgments subserves the detection of potential content on the basis of only coarse facets of the input.
 
Bartels A., Logothetis N.K., Moutoussis K. (2008) fMRI and its interpretations – an illustration on directional selectivity in V5/MT. TINS –Sep;31(9):444-53. Epub 2008 Aug 3.
Publication date: September, 2008
 
Lidzba K., Wilke M., Staudt M., Krägeloh-Mann I., Grodd W. (2008) Reorganization of the cerebro-cerebellar network of language production in patients with congenital left-hemispheric brain lesions. Brain Lang. 106(3):204-10.
Publication date: September, 2008
Patients with congenital lesions of the left cerebral hemisphere may reorganize language functions into the right hemisphere. In these patients, language production is represented homotopically to the left-hemispheric language areas. We studied cerebellar activation in five patients with congenital lesions of the
left cerebral hemisphere to assess if the language network is reorganized completely in these patients, i.e. including also cerebellar language functions. As compared to a group of controls matched for age, sex, and verbal IQ, the patients recruited an area not in the right but in the left cerebellar hemisphere. The extent of laterality of the cerebellar activation correlated significantly with the laterality of the frontal activation. We suggest that the developing brain reacts to early focal lesions in the left hemisphere with a
mirror-image organization of the entire cerebro-cerebellar network engaged in speech production.
 
Panford-Walsh R., Singer W., Rüttiger L., Hadjab S., Tan J., Geisler H.S., Zimmermann U., Köpschall I., Rohbock K., Vieljans A., Oestreicher E., Knipper M. (2008) Midazolam reverses salicylate-induced changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor and arg3.1 expression: implications for tinnitus perception and auditory plasticity. Mol Pharmacol. 74(3):595-604.
Publication date: September, 2008
Tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception, which can be induced via application of concentrated sodium salicylate, and is known to be associated with hearing loss and altered neuronal excitability in peripheral and central auditory neurons. The molecular features of this excitability, however, has been poorly
characterized to date. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arg3.1, also known as Arc), and c-Fos are known to be affected by changes in excitability and plasticity. Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry, the expression of these genes was monitored in the rat auditory system after local (cochlear) and systemic application of salicylate. Induction of tinnitus and hearing loss was verified in a behavioral model.
Regardless of the mode of salicylate application, a common pattern became evident: 1) BDNF mRNA expression was increased in the spiral ganglion neurons of the cochlea; and 2) Arg3.1 expression was significantly reduced in the auditory cortex. Local application of the GABA(A) receptor modulator midazolam resulted in
the reversal not only of salicylate-induced changes in cochlear BDNF expression, but also in cortical Arg3.1 expression, indicating that the tinnitus-associated changes in cochlear BDNF expression trigger the decline of cortical Arg3.1 expression. Furthermore, local midazolam application reduced tinnitus perception
in the animal model. These findings support Arg3.1 and BDNF as markers for activity changes in the auditory system and suggest a role of GABAergic inhibition of cochlear neurons in the modulation of Arg3.1 plasticity changes in the auditory cortex and tinnitus perception.
 
Hafed Z.M., Goffart L., Krauzlis R. J. (2008) Superior colliculus inactivation causes stable offsets in eye position during tracking. Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 28, No. 32, pp. 8124-8137.
Publication date: August, 2008
The primate superior colliculus (SC) is often viewed as composed of two distinct motor zones with complementary functions: a peripheral region that helps generate saccades to eccentric targets and a central one that maintains fixation by suppressing saccades. Here, we directly tested the alternative interpretation that topography in the SC is not strictly motor, nor does it form two distinct zones, but instead forms a single map of behaviorally relevant goal locations. Primates tracked the invisible midpoint between two moving stimuli, such that the stimuli guiding tracking were peripheral whereas the inferred movement goal was foveal and parafoveal. Temporary inactivation of neurons in the central portion of the topographic map of the SC, representing the invisible goal, caused stable offsets in eye position during tracking that were directed away from the retinotopic position encoded by the inactivated SC site. Critically, these offsets were not accompanied by a systematic inability to generate or suppress saccades, and they were not fully explained by motor deficits in saccades, smooth pursuit, or fixation. In addition, the magnitude of the offset depended on the eccentricity of the inactivated site as well as the degree of spatial uncertainty associated with the behavioral goal. These results indicate that gaze control depends on the balance of activity across a map of goal locations in the SC, and that by silencing some of the neurons in the normally active population representing the behavioral goal, focal inactivation causes a biased estimate of where to look.
 
Stüttgen M.C., Kullmann S., Schwarz C. (2008) Responses of rat trigeminal ganglion neurons to longitudinal whisker stimulation. J. Neurophysiol. 100:1879-1894.
Publication date: August, 2008
 
Gharabaghi A., Krischek B., Feigl G.C., Rosahl S.K. , Ludemann W., Mirzayan J.M., Koerbel A., Samii M., Tatagiba M., Heckl S. (2008) Image-guided craniotomy for frontal sinus preservation during meningioma surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 Aug; 34(8):928-31.
Publication date: August, 2008
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Tillmann C., Treue S. (2008) Effects of attention on perceptual direction tuning curves in the human visual system. Journal of Vision, 8(9):1–13.
Publication date: July, 2008
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Tillmann C., Treue S. (2008) Effects of attention on perceptual direction tuning curves in the human visual system. Journal of Vision, 8(9):1–13.
Publication date: July, 2008
 
Greenberg D.S., Houweling A.R., Kerr J.N. (2008) Population imaging of ongoing neuronal activity in the visual cortex of awake rats. Nat Neurosci. 11(7):749-51.
Publication date: July, 2008
It is unclear how the complex spatiotemporal organization of ongoing cortical neuronal activity recorded in anesthetized animals relates to the awake animal. We therefore used two-photon population calcium imaging in awake and subsequently anesthetized rats to follow action potential firing in populations of neurons across brain states, and examined how single neurons contributed to population activity. Firing rates and spike bursting in awake rats were higher, and pair-wise correlations were lower, compared with anesthetized rats. Anesthesia modulated population-wide synchronization and the relationship between firing rate and correlation. Overall, brain activity during wakefulness cannot be inferred using anesthesia.
 
Leupold J., Hennig J., Scheffler K. (2008) Moment and direction of the spoiler gradient for effective artifact suppression in RF-spoiled gradient echo imaging. Magn Reson Med. 60(1):119-27.
Publication date: July, 2008
Radiofrequency (RF) -spoiled gradient echo sequences were developed with the aim to produce images with T(1) weighted contrast within short acquisition time. Over the past two decades, this type of sequence has proven to be a robust technique and represents a reliable workhorse in clinical MRI. This study presents an analysis of ghost artifacts, which appear occasionally in RF-spoiled gradient echo images. It is demonstrated that the artifacts result from intrinsically emerging signal oscillations, which can be damped down by the application of spoiler gradients.
 
Healy D.G., Falchi M., O'Sullivan S.S., Bonifati V., Durr A., Bressman S., Brice A., Aasly J., Zabetian C.P., Goldwurm S., Ferreira J.J., Tolosa E., Kay D.M., Klein C., Williams D.R., Marras C., Lang A.E., Wszolek Z.K., Berciano J., Schapira A.H., Lynch T., Bhatia K.P., Gasser T., Lees A.J., Wood N.W., International LRRK2 Consortium. (2008) Phenotype, genotype, and worldwide genetic penetrance of LRRK2-associated Parkinson's disease: a case-control study. Lancet Neurol. 7(7):583-90.
Publication date: July, 2008
BACKGROUND: Mutations in LRRK2, the gene that encodes leucine-rich repeat kinase 2, are a cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). The International LRRK2 Consortium was established to answer three key clinical questions: can LRRK2-associated PD be distinguished from idiopathic PD; which mutations in LRRK2 are pathogenic; and what is the age-specific cumulative risk of PD for individuals who inherit or are at risk of inheriting a deleterious mutation in LRRK2?
METHODS: Researchers from 21 centres across the world collaborated on this study. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was estimated on the basis of data from 24 populations worldwide, and the penetrance of the mutation was defined in 1045 people with mutations in LRRK2 from 133 families. The LRRK2 phenotype was defined on the basis of 59 motor and non-motor symptoms in 356 patients with LRRK2-associated PD and compared with the symptoms of 543 patients with pathologically proven idiopathic PD.
FINDINGS: Six mutations met the consortium's criteria for being proven pathogenic. The frequency of the common LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 1% of patients with sporadic PD and 4% of patients with hereditary PD; the frequency was highest in the middle east and higher in southern Europe than in northern Europe. The risk of PD for a person who inherits the LRRK2 Gly2019Ser mutation was 28% at age 59 years, 51% at 69 years, and 74% at 79 years. The motor symptoms (eg, disease severity, rate of progression, occurrence of falls, and dyskinesia) and non-motor symptoms (eg, cognition and olfaction) of LRRK2-associated PD were more benign than those of idiopathic PD.
INTERPRETATION: Mutations in LRRK2 are a clinically relevant cause of PD that merit testing in patients with hereditary PD and in subgroups of patients with PD. However, this knowledge should be applied with caution in the diagnosis and counselling of patients.
FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council; UK Parkinson's Disease Society; UK Brain Research Trust; Internationaal Parkinson Fonds; Volkswagen Foundation; National Institutes of Health: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and National Institute of Aging; Udall Parkinson's Disease Centre of Excellence; Pacific Alzheimer Research Foundation Centre; Italian Telethon Foundation; Fondazione Grigioni per il Morbo di Parkinson; Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson's Research; Safra Global Genetics Consortium; US Department of Veterans Affairs; French Agence Nationale de la Recherche.
 
Margolis D.J., Newkirk G., Euler T., Detwiler P.B. (2008) Functional stability of retinal ganglion cells after degeneration-induced changes in synaptic input. J Neurosci 28:6526-6536.
Publication date: June, 2008
 
Logothetis N.K. (2008) What we can do and what we cannot do with fMRI. Nature. 453(7197):869-78. Review.
Publication date: June, 2008
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is currently the mainstay of neuroimaging in cognitive neuroscience. Advances in scanner technology, image acquisition protocols, experimental design, and analysis methods promise to push forward fMRI from mere cartography to the true study of brain organization. However, fundamental questions concerning the interpretation of fMRI data abound, as the conclusions drawn often ignore the actual limitations of the methodology. Here I give an overview of the current state of fMRI, and draw on neuroimaging and physiological data to present the current understanding of the haemodynamic signals and the constraints they impose on neuroimaging data interpretation.
 
Berens P., Keliris G.A., Ecker A.S., Logothetis N.K., Tolias A.S. (2008) Comparing the feature selectivity of the gamma-band of the local field potential and the underlying spiking activity in primate visual cortex. Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience 2(2)
Publication date: June, 2008
 
Park T.J., Lu Y., Jüttner R., Smith E.S.J., Hu J., Brand A., Wetzel C., Milenkovic N., Erdmann B., Heppenstall P.A., Laurito C.E., Wilson S.P., Lewin G.R. (2008) Inflammatory Pain Insensitivity in the African Naked Mole Rat (Heterocephalus glabor). PLoS Biol. 2008 Jan;6(1):e13.
Publication date: June, 2008
 
Gharabaghi A., Safavi-Abbasi S., Krischek B., Feigl G.C., Ludemann W., Mirzayan J.M., Samii M., Tatagiba M., Heckl S. (2008) The use of high-frequency electromagnetics in brain tumour surgery. Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 Jun; 34(6):716-9.
Publication date: June, 2008
 
Bartels A. (2008) Die Neurobiologie der Liebe. Braintertainment II. Spitzer und Bertram. Schattauer Verlag, Stuttgart. In preparation.
Publication date: June, 2008
 
Catz N., Dicke P.W., Thier P. (2008) Cerebellar-dependent motor learning is based on pruning a Purkinje cell population response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 105(20):7309-14.
Publication date: May, 2008
The improvement of motor behavior, based on experience, is a form of learning that is critically dependent on the cerebellum. A well studied example of cerebellar motor learning is short-term saccadic adaptation (STSA). In STSA, information on saccadic errors is used to improve future saccades. The information optimizing saccade metrics is conveyed by Purkinje cells simple spikes (PC-SS) because they are the critical input to the premotor circuits for saccades. We recorded PC-SS of monkeys undergoing STSA to reveal the code used for improving behavior. We found that the discharge of individual PC-SS was unable to account for the behavioral changes. The PC-SS population burst (PB), however, exhibited changes that closely paralleled the qualitatively different changes of saccade kinematics associated with gain-increase and gain-decrease STSA, respectively. Gain-increase STSA, characterized by an increase in saccade duration, replicates the relationship between saccade duration and the end of the PB valid for unadapted saccades. In contrast, gain-decrease STSA, which sports normal saccade duration but reduced saccadic velocity, is characterized by a PB that ends well before the adapted saccade. This suggests that the duration of normal as well as gain-increased saccades is determined by appropriately setting the end of PB end. However, the duration of gain-decreased saccades is apparently not modified by the cerebellum because the PB signals ends too early to determine saccade end. In summary, STSA, and most probably cerebellar-dependent learning in general, is based on optimizing the shape of a PC-SS population response.
 
Peters J., Schaal S. (2008) Reinforcement learning of motor skills with policy gradients. Neural Netw. 21(4):682-97.
Publication date: May, 2008
Autonomous learning is one of the hallmarks of human and animal behavior, and understanding the principles of learning will be crucial in order to achieve true autonomy in advanced machines like humanoid robots. In this paper, we examine learning of complex motor skills with human-like limbs. While supervised learning can offer useful tools for bootstrapping behavior, e.g., by learning from demonstration, it is only reinforcement learning that offers a general approach to the final trial-and-error improvement that is needed by each individual acquiring a skill. Neither neurobiological nor machine learning studies have, so far, offered compelling results on how reinforcement learning can be scaled to the high-dimensional continuous state and action spaces of humans or humanoids. Here, we combine two recent research developments on learning motor control in order to achieve this scaling. First, we interpret the idea of modular motor control by means of motor primitives as a suitable way to generate parameterized control policies for reinforcement learning. Second, we combine motor primitives with the theory of stochastic policy gradient learning, which currently seems to be the only feasible framework for reinforcement learning for humanoids. We evaluate different policy gradient methods with a focus on their applicability to parameterized motor primitives. We compare these algorithms in the context of motor primitive learning, and show that our most modern algorithm, the Episodic Natural Actor-Critic outperforms previous algorithms by at least an order of magnitude. We demonstrate the efficiency of this reinforcement learning method in the application of learning to hit a baseball with an anthropomorphic robot arm.
 
Lagali P.S., Balya D., Awatramani G.B., Münch T.A., Kim D.S., Busskamp V., Cepko C.L., Roska B. (2008) Light-activated channels targeted to ON bipolar cells restore visual function in retinal degeneration. Nature Neuroscience 11:667-75. Epub 2008 Apr 27.
Publication date: April, 2008
Genetically encoded optical neuromodulators create an opportunity for circuit-specific intervention in neurological diseases. One of the diseases most amenable to this approach is retinal degeneration, where the loss of photoreceptors leads to complete blindness. To restore photosensitivity, we genetically targeted a light-activated cation channel, channelrhodopsin-2, to second-order neurons, ON bipolar cells, of degenerated retinas in vivo in the Pde6b(rd1) (also known as rd1) mouse model. In the absence of 'classical' photoreceptors, we found that ON bipolar cells that were engineered to be photosensitive induced light-evoked spiking activity in ganglion cells. The rescue of light sensitivity was selective to the ON circuits that would naturally respond to increases in brightness. Despite degeneration of the outer retina, our intervention restored transient responses and center-surround organization of ganglion cells. The resulting signals were relayed to the visual cortex and were sufficient for the animals to successfully perform optomotor behavioral tasks.
 
Gharabaghi A., Heckl S., Lowenheim H., Koerbel A., Kaminsky J., Tatagiba M. (2008) Auditory rehabilitation after longterm deafness Neurosurgery. 2008 Apr; 62(4):983-5.
Publication date: April, 2008
 
Bethge M., Sinz F.H. (2008) How Much Can Orientation Selectivity and Contrast Gain Control Reduce the Redundancies in Natural Images MPI Technical Report No. 169
Publication date: March, 2008
 
Gharabaghi A., Rosahl S.K. , Feigl G.C., Safavi-Abbasi S., Mirzayan J.M., Heckl S., Shahidi R., Tatagiba M., Samii M. (2008) Image-guided lateral suboccipital approach: part 2-impact on complication rates and operation times. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3 Suppl 1):24-9.
Publication date: March, 2008
 
Gharabaghi A., Rosahl S.K. , Feigl G.C., Liebig T., Mirzayan J.M., Heckl S., Shahidi R., Tatagiba M., Samii M. (2008) Image-guided lateral suboccipital approach: part 1-individualized landmarks for surgical planning. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3 Suppl 1):18-22.
Publication date: March, 2008
 
Bartels A., Zeki S., Logothetis N.K. (2008) Natural vision reveals regional specialization to local motion and to contrast-invariant, global flow in the human brain. Cerebral Cortex, 18(3), p. 705-717.
Publication date: March, 2008
 
Kerr J.N., Denk W. (2008) Imaging in vivo: watching the brain in action. Nat Rev Neurosci. 9(3):195-205. Review.
Publication date: March, 2008
The appeal of in vivo cellular imaging to any neuroscientist is not hard to understand: it is almost impossible to isolate individual neurons while keeping them and their complex interactions with surrounding tissue intact. These interactions lead to the complex network dynamics that underlie neural computation which, in turn, forms the basis of cognition, perception and consciousness. In vivo imaging allows the study of both form and function in reasonably intact preparations, often with subcellular spatial resolution, a time resolution of milliseconds and a purview of months. Recently, the limits of what can be achieved in vivo have been pushed into terrain that was previously only accessible in vitro, due to advances in both physical-imaging technology and the design of molecular contrast agents.
 
Gharabaghi A., Rosahl S.K. , Feigl G.C., Liebig T., Heckl S., Mirzayan J.M., Safavi-Abbasi S., Koerbel A., Lowenheim H., Nagele T., Shahidi R., Samii M., Tatagiba M. (2008) Surgical planning for retrosigmoid craniotomies improved by 3D computed tomography venography. . Eur J Surg Oncol. 2008 Feb; 34(2):227-31.
Publication date: February, 2008
 
König O., Rüttiger L., Müller M., Zimmermann U., Erdmann B., Kalbacher H., Gross M., Knipper M. (2008) Estrogen and the inner ear: megalin knockout mice suffer progressive hearing loss. FASEB J. 22(2):410-7.
Publication date: February, 2008
Megalin, the largest member of the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein family, functions as an endocytic receptor for a variety of essential lipophilic metabolites, including the steroid hormone estrogen. In the cochlea, megalin is strongly expressed within the marginal cells of the stria vascularis, and previous studies demonstrated that beta-estrogen receptors are also expressed in megalin-expressing marginal cells. In the present study, we demonstrate that homozygous megalin mutant mice exhibit profound hearing loss at 3 months of age associated with features of presbycusis, enrichment of lipofuscin granules, and a reduced number of microvilli in marginal cells of the stria vascularis. FITC-labeled beta-estrogen is taken up into the strial marginal cells; however, in megalin-deficient mice the uptake of FITC-labeled beta-estrogen is reduced. This highlights beta-estrogen as a possible carrier-bound candidate ligand for megalin and supports the concept that estrogen may function via megalin within the inner ear. A crucial role of megalin in hearing should be considered and the megalin/estrogen interaction needs to be discussed in the context of early
presbycusis in estrogen-deficient humans and mice.
 
Waldert S., Preissl H., Demandt E., Braun C., Birbaumer N., Aertsen A., Mehring C. (2008) Hand movement direction decoded from MEG and EEG. J Neurosci. 28(4):1000-8.
Publication date: January, 2008
Brain activity can be used as a control signal for brain-machine interface (BMIs). A powerful and widely acknowledged BMI approach, so far only applied in invasive recording techniques, uses neuronal signals related to limb movements for equivalent, multidimensional control of an external effector. Here, we investigated whether this approach is also applicable for noninvasive recording
techniques. To this end, we recorded whole-head MEG during center-out movements with the hand and found significant power modulation of MEG activity between rest and movement in three frequency bands: an increase for < or = 7 Hz (low-frequency band) and 62-87 Hz (high-gamma band) and a decrease for 10-30 Hz (beta band)
during movement. Movement directions could be inferred on a single-trial basis from the low-pass filtered MEG activity as well as from power modulations in the low-frequency band, but not from the beta and high-gamma bands. Using sensors above the motor area, we obtained a surprisingly high decoding accuracy of 67% on
average across subjects. Decoding accuracy started to rise significantly above chance level before movement onset. Based on simultaneous MEG and EEG recordings, we show that the inference of movement direction works equally well for both recording techniques. In summary, our results show that neuronal activity associated with different movements of the same effector can be distinguished by means of noninvasive recordings and might, thus, be used to drive a noninvasive BMI.
 
Hardiess G., Gillner S., Mallot H.A. (2008) Head and eye movements and the role of memory limitations in a visual search paradigm. J Vis. 8(1):7.1-13.
Publication date: January, 2008
The image information guiding visual behavior is acquired and maintained in an interplay of gaze shifts and visual short-term memory (VSTM). If storage capacity of VSTM is exhausted, gaze shifts can be used to regain information not currently represented in memory. By varying the separation between relevant image regions, S. Inamdar and M. Pomplun (2003) demonstrated a trade-off between VSTM storage and gaze shifts, which were performed as pure eye movements, that is, without a head movement component. Here we extend this paradigm to larger gaze shifts involving both eye and head movements. We use a comparative visual search paradigm with two relevant image regions and region separation as independent variable. Image regions were defined by two cupboards displaying colored geometrical objects in roughly equal arrangements. Subjects were asked to find differences in the arrangement of the objects in the two cupboards. Cupboard separation was varied between 30 degrees and 120 degrees . Images were presented with two projectors on a 150 degrees x 70 degrees curved screen. Head and eye movements were simultaneously recorded with an ART head tracker and an ASL mobile eye tracker, respectively. In the large separation conditions, the number of gaze shifts between the two cupboards was reduced, while fixation duration increased. Furthermore, the head movement proportions negatively correlated with the number of gaze shifts and positively correlated with fixation duration. We conclude that the visual system uses increased VSTM involvement to avoid gaze movements and in particular movements of the head. Scan path analysis revealed two subject-specific strategies (encode left, compare right, and vice versa), which were consistently used in all separation conditions.
 
Stüttgen M.C., Schwarz C. (2008) Psychophysical and neurometric detection performance under stimulus uncertainty. Nat Neurosci 11:1091-1099
Publication date: 2008
 
Gallo V., Mangin J.M., Kukley M., Dietrich D. (2008) Synapses on NG2-expressing progenitors in the brain: multiple functions? J Physiol. 586(16):3767-3781
Publication date: 2008
 
Kukley M., Kiladze M., Tognatta R., Hans M., Swandulla D., Schramm J., Dietrich D. (2008) Glial cells are born with synapses. FASEB J. 8:2957-2969
Publication date: 2008
 
Barliya A., Omlor L., Giese M.A., Flash T. (2008) An analytical formulation to the law of intersegmental coordination. Experimental Brain Research, DOI 10.1007/s00221-008-1633-0
Publication date: 2008
 
Bülthoff H.H., Wallraven C., Giese M.A. (2008) Perceptual Robotics: Example-based representations of shapes and movements. In Siciliano B, Khatib O: Springer Handbook of Robotics, 1481-1498
Publication date: 2008
 
Curio C., Giese M.A., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H. (2008) Probing dynamic human facial action recognition from the other side of the mean. ACM Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization, ACM Press, New York, 59-66.
Publication date: 2008
 
Curio C., Giese M.A., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H. (2008) Exploring human dynamic facial expression recognition with animation. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Cognitive Systems, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, April 2-4, 2008, Springer Verlag
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2008) Physiologically-inspired model for the visual tuning properties of mirror neurons. Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Cognitive Systems, University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany, April 2-4, 2008, Springer Verlag
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2008) Neural Model for the Visual Recognition of Goal-directed Movements. V. Kurkova, R. Neruda, and J. Koutnik (Eds.): ICANN 2008, Part II , LNCS 5164, 939-948.
Publication date: 2008
 
Giese M.A., Thornton I.M., Edelman S. (2008) Metrics of the perception of body movement. Journal of Vision , 8(9):13, 1-18.
Publication date: 2008
 
Mukovskiy A., Park A., Omlor L., Slotine J.J.E., Giese M.A. (2008) Self-organization of character behavior by mixing of learned movement primitives. Proceedings of the 13th Fall Workshop on Vision, Modeling, and Visualization (VMV) , October 8-10, Konstanz, Germany
Publication date: 2008
 
Park A., Mukovskiy A., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2008) Synthesis of character behaviour by dynamic interaction of synergies learned from motion capture data. Skala V (ed): Proceedings of the 16th International Conference in Central Europe on Computer Graphics, Visualization and Computer Vision (WSCG), Plzen, Czech Republic, 9-16.
Publication date: 2008
 
Park A., Mukovskiy A., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2008) Synthesis of character behaviour by dynamic interaction of synergies learned from motion capture data. International Conference on Cognitive Systems (CogSys), Springer-Verlag, Berlin
Publication date: 2008
 
Roether C.L., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2008) Features in the recognition of emotions from dynamic bodily expression. Masson G, Ilg U J (eds): Dynamics of Visual Motion Processing: Neuronal, Behavioral and Computational Approaches, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, in press.
Publication date: 2008
 
Roether C.L., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2008) Lateral asymmetry of bodily emotion expression. Current Biology , 18, R329-330.
Publication date: 2008
 
Timmann D., Brandauer B., Hermsdörfer J., Ilg W., Konczak J., Gerwig M., Gizewski E.R., Schoch B. (2008) Lesion-symptom mapping of the human cerebellum. Cerebellum. 2008;7(4):602-6.
Publication date: 2008
 
Ilg W., Christensen A., Karnath H.O., Giese M.A. (2008) Facilitation of action recognition by self-generated movements depends critically on timing Neuroscience Meeting Washington DC . 
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2008) Neural model for the visual recognition of actions. (COSYNE), Salt Lake City, USA.
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2008) Simulating mirror-neuron responses using a neural model for visual action recognition. Proceedings of the Seventeenth Annual Computational Neuroscience Meeting CNS, July 19th - 24th 2008, Portland, Oregon, USA.  
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2008) Neural model for the recognition of transitive actions. Perception 37 suppl, 155 . 
Publication date: 2008
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2008) Distinctive postural and dynamic features for bodily emotion expression. Journal of Vision 8(6), 910a. . 
Publication date: 2008
 
Euler T., Hausselt S.E. (2008) Direction Selective Cells. In: Vision I, The Senses – A Comprehensive Reference (Masland RH, Albright TD, eds), pp 413-422. San Diego: Academic Press.
Publication date: 2008
 
Hausselt S.E., Euler T. (2008) Starburst Amacrine Cells and Direction Selectivity. In: Encyclopedia of Neuroscience (Binder MD, Hirokawa N, Windhorst U, eds) 18:3501-3507. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer (DOI 10.1007/978-3-540-29678-2)
Publication date: 2008
 
Euler T., Hausselt S.E., Castell X., Denk W. (2008) Im Auge des Betrachters – Signalverarbeitung in der Retina. MPG Tätigkeitsbericht 2007.
Publication date: 2008
 
Melcón M.L., Schnitzler H.U., Denzinger A. (2008) Variability of the approach phase of landing Greater Mouse-eared bats. J Comp Physiol 195:69-77
Publication date: 2008
 
Yovel Y., Franz M.O., Stilz P., Schnitzler H.U. (2008) Plant classification from bat-like echolocation signals. PLOS Comp Biol 4,3 Article number e1000032
Publication date: 2008
 
Park A., Mukovskiy A., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2008) Self organized character animation based on learned synergies from full-body motion capture data. International Conference on Cognitive Systems (CogSys), Springer-Verlag, Berlin
Publication date: 2008
 
Brugger D., Butovas S., Bogdan M., Schwarz C., Rosenstiel W. (2008) Direct and inverse solution for a stimulus adaptation problem using SVR. ESANN Proceedings 2008, pp. 397-402.
Publication date: 2008
 
Bach D.R., Schächinger H., Neuhoff J.G., Esposito F., Di Salle F., Lehmann C., Herdener M., Scheffler K., Seifritz E. (2008) Rising sound intensity: an intrinsic warning cue activating the amygdala. Cereb Cortex. 18(1):145-50.
Publication date: 2008
Human subjects overestimate the change of rising intensity sounds compared with falling intensity sounds. Rising sound intensity has therefore been proposed to be an intrinsic warning cue. In order to test this hypothesis, we presented rising, falling, and constant intensity sounds to healthy humans and gathered psychophysiological and behavioral responses. Brain activity was measured using event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. We found that rising compared with falling sound intensity facilitates autonomic orienting reflex and phasic alertness to auditory targets. Rising intensity sounds produced neural activity in the amygdala, which was accompanied by activity in intraparietal sulcus, superior temporal sulcus, and temporal plane. Our results indicate that rising sound intensity is an elementary warning cue eliciting adaptive responses by recruiting attentional and physiological resources. Regions involved in cross-modal integration were activated by rising sound intensity, while the right-hemisphere phasic alertness network could not be supported by this study.
 
Jäkel F., Schölkopf B., Wichmann F.A. (2008) Similarity, Kernels, and the Triangle Inequality. Journal of Mathematical Psychology. 52(2):297-303.
Publication date: 2008
 
Hofmann T., Schölkopf B., Smola A.J. (2008) Kernel Methods in Machine Learning. Annals of Statistics. 36(3):1171-220.
Publication date: 2008
 
Schaal S., Nakamura Y., Dario P. (2008) Special issue on robotics and neuroscience. Neural Netw. 21(4):551-2.
Publication date: 2008
 
Krägeloh-Mann I. (2008) Paediatric neurology: traditional opinions revisited. Lancet Neurol. 7(1):16-8.
Publication date: 2008
 
Fleischer M., Stanciu C., Stade F., Stadler J., Braun K., Heeren A., Häffner M., Kern D.P., Meixner A.J. (2008) Three-dimensional optical antennas: Nanocones in an apertureless scanning near-field microscope. Appl Phys Lett. 93:111-114.
Publication date: 2008
 
Kim S.P., Simeral J., Hochberg L., Donoghue J.P., Black M.J. (2008) Neural control of computer cursor velocity by decoding motor cortical spiking activity in humans with tetraplegia. J Neural Eng. 5:455-476.
Publication date: 2008
2007
 
 
Krämer UM, Cunillera T, Camara E, Marco-Pallarés J, Cucurell D, Nager W, Bauer P., Schüle R, Schöls L., et al. (2007) The impact of catechol-O-methyltransferase and dopamine D4 receptor genotypes on neurophysiological markers of performance monitoring. J Neurosci. 27(51):14190-8.
Publication date: December, 2007
Dynamic adaptations of one's behavior by means of performance monitoring are a central function of the human executive system, that underlies considerable interindividual variation. Converging evidence from electrophysiological and neuroimaging studies in both animals and humans hints at the importance of the dopaminergic system for the regulation of performance monitoring. Here, we studied the impact of two polymorphisms affecting dopaminergic functioning in the prefrontal cortex [catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) Val108/158Met and dopamine D4 receptor (DRD4) single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-521] on neurophysiological correlates of performance monitoring. We applied a modified version of a standard flanker task with an embedded stop-signal task to tap into the different functions involved, particularly error monitoring, conflict detection and inhibitory processes. Participants homozygous for the DRD4 T allele produced an increased error-related negativity after both choice errors and failed inhibitions compared with C-homozygotes. This was associated with pronounced compensatory behavior reflected in higher post-error slowing. No group differences were seen in the incompatibility N2, suggesting distinct effects of the DRD4 polymorphism on error monitoring processes. Additionally, participants homozygous for the COMT Val allele, with a thereby diminished prefrontal dopaminergic level, revealed increased prefrontal processing related to inhibitory functions, reflected in the enhanced stop-signal-related components N2 and P3a. The results extend previous findings from mainly behavioral and neuroimaging data on the relationship between dopaminergic genes and executive functions and present possible underlying mechanisms for the previously suggested association between these dopaminergic polymorphisms and psychiatric disorders as schizophrenia or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
 
Debener S., Ullsperger M., Siegel M., Engel A. K. (2007) Towards single-trial analysis in cognitive brain research. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 11(12): 502-503
Publication date: December, 2007
 
Nienborg H, Cumming B G (2007) Psychophysically measured task strategy for disparity discrimination is reflected in V2 neurons. Nature Neuroscience, 2007: 10:1608-14
Publication date: December, 2007
 
Hu J., Wetzel C., Bruckhoff C., Milenkovic N., Lewin G.R. (2007) Stomatin and sensory neuron mechanotransduction. 2007 Dec;98(6):3802-8 J Neurophysiol
Publication date: December, 2007
 
Bieri O., Patil S., Quick H.H., Scheffler K. (2007) Morphing steady-state free precession. Magn Reson Med. 58(6):1242-8.
Publication date: December, 2007
A novel concept for visualization of positive contrast originating from susceptibility-related magnetic field distortions is presented. In unbalanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) the generic, gradient-induced dephasing competes with local gradient fields generated by paramagnetic materials. Thus, within the same image, SSFP may morph its own appearance from unbalanced to balanced SSFP (bSSFP) as a result of local gradient compensation. In combination with low to very low flip angles, unbalanced SSFP signals are heavily suppressed, whereas bSSFP locally produces very high steady-state amplitudes at certain frequency offsets. As a result, bSSFP signals appear hyperintense on an almost completely dark background. In this study, the conceptual issues of local gradient compensation and frequency matching, as well as the feasibility of proper detection of marker materials for interventional MRI from hyperintense pixels locations, are evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Signal dependencies of morphing SSFP on sequence parameters such as flip angle or repetition time are investigated theoretically and experimentally. In addition to passive tracking of interventional devices, morphing SSFP might also be a promising new concept for the generation of positive contrast from super-paramagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) particles in contrast-enhanced MRI as well as for particle tracking.
 
Treue S., Katzner S. (2007) Visual attention: of features and transparent surfaces. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(11): 451-453.
Publication date: November, 2007
 
Belardinelli P., Ciancetta L., Staudt M., Pizzella V., Londei A., Birbaumer N., Romani G.L., Braun C. (2007) Cerebro-muscular and cerebro-cerebral coherence in patients with pre- and perinatally acquired unilateral brain lesions. Neuroimage. 37(4):1301-14.
Publication date: October, 2007
The cerebral networks involved in motor control were analyzed in four young hemi-paretic patients (21-25 years) with pre- and perinatally acquired brain lesions (3 with left periventricular brain lesions, 1 with left schizencephaly) by means of MEG source coherence analysis. Previous TMS and fMRI studies on the same patients had investigated their residual ability to move the paretic hand by means of a reorganized primary motor cortex (M1) representation in the contralesional hemisphere. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of such a cerebral reorganization and the related dynamic aspects which allow the patients to move the paretic arm. Patients underwent a pinch grip task (1-N isometric contraction) using their paretic and non-paretic hands in alternation. MEG signals were recorded using a whole-head 151-channel magnetoencephalograph. EMG was simultaneously recorded as a reference for coherence calculations. 3D coherence mapping was performed in the beta frequency range (14-30 Hz). This approach confirmed the relocation of motor functions from the lesioned (left) to the contralesional (right) hemisphere. In case of left, non-paretic pinch grip, coherent activity originated from contralateral (right) M1 exclusively. In the case of right (paretic) grip, coherent activity in ipsilateral M1 as well as significant coherence of ipsilateral cerebellum with both muscle activity and M1 itself was detected in 3 out of 4 subjects. As expected, the patient with no cerebellar involvement during paretic hand contraction showed the worst motor performance in the grip task. Coupling direction analysis demonstrated that throughout pinch grip the coupling direction goes from M1 to cerebellum. The present study verified the assumption that the intact hemisphere takes over motor control from the paretic (ipsilateral) hand in the presence of early unilateral brain lesion. Moreover, the role of cerebellum in motor deficit compensation and its close interaction with ipsilateral primary motor cortex was studied in detail.
 
Marshall L., Born J. (2007) The contribution of sleep to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation. Trends Cogn Sci. 11(10):442-50.
Publication date: October, 2007
There is now compelling evidence that sleep promotes the long-term consolidation of declarative and procedural memories. Behavioral studies suggest that sleep preferentially consolidates explicit aspects of these memories, which during encoding are possibly associated with activation in prefrontal-hippocampal circuitry. Hippocampus-dependent declarative memory benefits particularly from slow-wave sleep (SWS), whereas rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep seems to benefit procedural aspects of memory. Consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memories
relies on a dialog between the neocortex and hippocampus. Crucial features of this dialog are the neuronal reactivation of new memories in the hippocampus during SWS, which stimulates the redistribution of memory representations to neocortical networks; and the neocortical slow (
 
Bogaerts V., Engelborghs S., Kumar-Singh S., Goossens D., Pickut B., van der Zee J., Sleegers K., Peeters K., Martin J.J., Del-Favero J., Gasser T., Dickson D.W., Wszolek Z.K., De Deyn P.P., Theuns J., Van Broeckhoven C. (2007) A novel locus for dementia with Lewy bodies: a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorder. Brain. 130(Pt 9):2277-91.
Publication date: September, 2007
Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) represents the second most frequent type of neurodegenerative dementia in the elderly. Although most patients have sporadic DLB, a limited number of DLB families have been described, suggesting that genetic factors may contribute to DLB pathogenesis. Here, we describe a three-generation Belgian family with prominent dementia and parkinsonism, consistent with a diagnosis of DLB, that was autopsy confirmed for the index patient. In a genome-wide scan and subsequent finemapping of candidate loci we obtained significant linkage to 2q35-q36 (Z = 3.01 at D2S1242). Segregation analysis defined a candidate region of 9.2 Mb between D2S433 and chr2q36.3-8, adjacent to the previously reported PARK11 locus. In addition, haplotype sharing studies in another DLB family of close geographical origin with similar clinical
and neuropathological features highlighted the specificity of a 2q35-q36 haplotype harbouring a pathogenic mutation that causes DLB in the Belgian family. So far, extensive sequence analysis of five candidate genes within the 2q35-q36 region has not revealed a disease-causing mutation. Together, our data re-emphasize the genetic heterogeneity of DLB, and strongly support the existence of a gene for familial DLB on 2q35-q36. Once identified this will be the first novel causal gene for DLB and can be expected to open new avenues for biological studies of the disease process.
 
Sato T., Gray N.W., Mainen Z.F., Svoboda K. (2007) The functional microarchitecture of the mouse barrel cortex. PLoS Biol. 5(7):e189. Epub 2007 Jul 10.
Publication date: September, 2007
Cortical maps, consisting of orderly arrangements of functional columns, are a hallmark of the organization of the cerebral cortex. However, the microorganization of cortical maps at the level of single neurons is not known, mainly because of the limitations of available mapping techniques. Here, we used bulk loading of Ca(2+) indicators combined with two-photon microscopy to image the activity of multiple single neurons in layer (L) 2/3 of the mouse barrel cortex in vivo. We developed methods that reliably detect single action potentials in approximately half of the imaged neurons in L2/3. This allowed us to measure the spiking probability following whisker deflection and thus map the whisker selectivity for multiple neurons with known spatial relationships. At the level of neuronal populations, the whisker map varied smoothly across the surface of the cortex, within and between the barrels. However, the whisker selectivity of individual neurons recorded simultaneously differed greatly, even for nearest neighbors. Trial-to-trial correlations between pairs of neurons were high over distances spanning multiple cortical columns. Our data suggest that the response properties of individual neurons are shaped by highly specific subcolumnar circuits and the momentary intrinsic state of the neocortex.
 
Wolbers T., Wiener J.M., Mallot H.A., Büchel C. (2007) Differential recruitment of the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and the human motion complex during path integration in humans. J Neurosci. 27(35):9408-16.
Publication date: August, 2007
Path integration, the ability to sense self-motion for keeping track of changes in orientation and position, constitutes a fundamental mechanism of spatial navigation and a keystone for the development of cognitive maps. Whereas animal path integration is predominantly supported by the head-direction, grid, and place cell systems, the neural foundations are not well understood in humans. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a virtual rendition of a triangle completion paradigm to test whether human path integration recruits a cortical system similar to that of rodents and nonhuman primates. Participants traveled along two legs of a triangle before pointing toward the starting location. In accordance with animal models, stronger right hippocampal activation predicted more accurate updating of the starting location on a trial-by-trial basis. Moreover, between-subjects fluctuations in response consistency were negatively correlated with bilateral hippocampal and medial prefrontal activation, and bilateral recruitment of the human motion complex (hMT+) covaried with individual path integration capability. Given that these effects were absent in a perceptual control task, the present study provides the first evidence that visual path integration is related to the dynamic interplay of self-motion processing in hMT+, higher-level spatial processes in the hippocampus, and spatial working memory in medial prefrontal cortex.
 
Hausselt S.E., Euler T., Detwiler P.B., Denk W. (2007) A Dendrite-Autonomous Mechanism for Direction Selectivity in Retinal Starburst Amacrine Cells. PLoS Biol 5:e185
Publication date: July, 2007
 
Donner T. H., Siegel M., Oostenveld R., Fries P., Engel A. K. (2007) Population Activity in the Human Dorsal Pathway Predicts the Accuracy of Visual Motion Detection. Journal of Neurophysiology: 98: 345-359
Publication date: May, 2007
 
Schmidt G. N., Scharein E., Siegel M., Müller J., Debener S., Nitzschke R., Engel A. K., Bischoff P. (2007) Identification of sensory blockade by somatosensory and pain induced evoked potentials. nesthesiology 106(4):707-714
Publication date: April, 2007
 
Rüttiger L., Panford-Walsh R., Schimmang T., Tan J., Zimmermann U., Rohbock K., Köpschall I., Limberger A., Müller M., Fraenzer J.T., Cimerman J., Knipper M. (2007) BDNF mRNA expression and protein localization are changed in age-related hearing loss. Neurobiol Aging. 28(4):586-601.
Publication date: April, 2007
A decline in neuronal plasticity during the adult life span has been proposed to be associated with a reduced level of the effectors of plasticity responses (e.g., BDNF). Alteration of plasticity is also correlated with age-relatedhearing loss (presbycusis), but to date no detailed studies of BDNF expression have been performed in the young or aging mature cochlea. We have used rat and gerbil animal models for presbycusis, which displayed hearing loss in the final third of the animals' natural life span. We demonstrate for the first time a co-localization of BDNF protein, transcripts III and IV in cochlear neurons with a declining distribution towards low-frequency processing cochlear turns. BDNF protein was also found within the neuronal projections of the cochlea. A significant reduction of BDNF transcripts in high-frequency processing cochlear neurons was observed during aging, though this did not coincide with a major reduction of BDNF protein. In contrast, BDNF protein in peripheral and central projections was drastically reduced. Our results suggest that reduced BDNF protein levels in auditory nerves over age may be a crucial factor in the altered brainstem plasticity observed during presbycusis.
 
Tan J., Rüttiger L., Panford-Walsh R., Singer W., Schulze H., Kilian S.B., Hadjab S., Zimmermann U., Köpschall I., Rohbock K., Knipper M. (2007) Tinnitus behavior and hearing function correlate with the reciprocal expression patterns of BDNF and Arg3.1/arc in auditory neurons following acoustic trauma. Neuroscience. 145(2):715-26.
Publication date: March, 2007
The molecular changes following sensory trauma and the subsequent response of the CNS are poorly understood. We focused on finding a molecular tool for monitoring the features of excitability which occur following acoustic trauma to the
auditory system. Of particular interest are genes that alter their expression pattern during activity-induced changes in synaptic efficacy and plasticity. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), the activity-dependent cytoskeletal protein (Arg3.1/arc), and the immediate early gene c-Fos were monitored in the peripheral and central auditory system hours and days following a traumatic acoustic stimulus that induced not only hearing loss but also phantom auditory perception (tinnitus), as shown in rodent animal behavior models. A reciprocal responsiveness of activity-dependent genes became evident between the periphery and the primary auditory cortex (AI): as c-Fos and BDNF exon IV expression was increased in spiral ganglion neurons, Arg3.1/arc and (later on) BDNF exon IV expression was reduced in AI. In line with studies indicating
increased spontaneous spike activity at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC), an increase in BDNF and GABA-positive neurons was seen in the IC. The data clearly indicate the usefulness of Arg3.1/arc and BDNF for monitoring trauma-induced activity changes and the associated putative plasticity responses in the auditory system.
 
Ehrlich I., Klein M., Rumpel S., Malinow R. (2007) PSD-95 is required for activity-driven synapse stabilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:4176-4181.
Publication date: March, 2007
 
Siegel M., Donner T. H., Oostenveld R., Fries P., Engel A. K. (2007) High-Frequency Activity in Human Visual Cortex Is Modulated by Visual Motion Strength. Cerebral Cortex 17:732-741
Publication date: March, 2007
 
Rätsch G., Sonnenburg S., Srinivasan J., Witte H., Müller K.R., Sommer R.J., Schölkopf B. (2007) Improving the Caenorhabditis elegans genome annotation using machine learning. PLoS Comput Biol. 3(2):e20.
Publication date: February, 2007
For modern biology, precise genome annotations are of prime importance, as they allow the accurate definition of genic regions. We employ state-of-the-art machine learning methods to assay and improve the accuracy of the genome annotation of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The proposed machine learning system is trained to recognize exons and introns on the unspliced mRNA, utilizing recent advances in support vector machines and label sequence learning. In 87% (coding and untranslated regions) and 95% (coding regions only) of all genes tested in several out-of-sample evaluations, our method correctly identified all exons and introns. Notably, only 37% and 50%, respectively, of the presently unconfirmed genes in the C. elegans genome annotation agree with our predictions, thus we hypothesize that a sizable fraction of those genes are not correctly annotated. A retrospective evaluation of the Wormbase WS120 annotation [] of C. elegans reveals that splice form predictions on unconfirmed genes in WS120 are inaccurate in about 18% of the considered cases, while our predictions deviate from the truth only in 10%-13%. We experimentally analyzed 20 controversial genes on which our system and the annotation disagree, confirming the superiority of our predictions. While our method correctly predicted 75% of those cases, the standard annotation was never completely correct. The accuracy of our system is further corroborated by a comparison with two other recently proposed systems that can be used for splice form prediction: SNAP and ExonHunter. We conclude that the genome annotation of C. elegans and other organisms can be greatly enhanced using modern machine learning technology.
 
Bethge M., Gerwinn S., Macke J.H. (2007) Unsupervised learning of a steerable basis for invariant image representations. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XII: Proceedings of the SPIE Human Vision and Electronic Imaging Conference 2007, 1-12. (Eds.) Rogowitz, B. E. SPIE, Bellingham, WA, USA
Publication date: February, 2007
 
Wiecki T.V., Wichmann F.A. , Bethge M. (2007) The Independent Components of Natural Images are Perceptually Dependent. Human Vision and Electronic Imaging XII: Proceedings of the SPIE Human Vision and Electronic Imaging Conference 2007, 1-12. (Eds.) Rogowitz, B. E. SPIE, Bellingham, WA, USA
Publication date: February, 2007
 
Heim N., Garaschuk O., Friedrich M.W., Mank M., Milos R.I., Kovalchuk Y., Konnerth A., Griesbeck O. (2007) Improved calcium imaging in transgenic mice expressing a troponin C-based biosensor. Nat Methods. 4(2):127-9.
Publication date: February, 2007
Fluorescent Ca(2+) indicator proteins (FCIPs) are attractive tools for studying Ca(2+) dynamics in live cells. Here we describe transgenic mouse lines expressing a troponin C (TnC)-based biosensor. The biosensor is widely expressed in neurons and has improved Ca(2+) sensitivity both in vitro and in vivo. This allows FCIP-based two-photon Ca(2+) imaging of distinct neurons and their dendrites in vivo, and opens a new avenue for structure-function analysis of intact neuronal circuits.
 
Butovas S., Schwarz C. (2007) Intracortical microstimulation in barrel cortex of awake, head-restraint rats: assessment of detection thresholds. Eur J Neurosci 25:2161-2169
Publication date: 2007
 
Gueler N., Kukley M., Dietrich D. (2007) TBOA-sensitive uptake limits glutamate penetration into brain slices to a few micrometers. Neurosci Lett. 419(3):269-272
Publication date: 2007
 
Kukley M., Capetillo-Zarate E., Dietrich D. (2007) Vesicular glutamate release from axons in white matter. Nature Neuroscience 10, 311 - 320 (2007)
Publication date: 2007
 
Muller A., Kukley M., Uebachs M., Beck H., Dietrich D. (2007) Nanodomains of single Ca2+ channels contribute to action potential repolarization in cortical neurons. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 17;27(3):483-95.
Publication date: 2007
 
Wetzel C., Hu J., Riethmacher D., Benckendorff A., Harder L., Eilers A., Moshourab R., Kozlenkov A., Labuz D., Caspani O., Erdmann B., Machelska H., Heppenstall P.A., Lewin G.R. (2007) A stomatin-domain protein essential for touch sensation in the mouse. Nature.445 (7124): 206-209.
Publication date: 2007
 
Dayan E., Casile A., Levit-Binnun N., Giese M.A., Hendler T., Flash T. (2007) Neural representations of kinematic laws of motion: evidence for action-perception coupling Proc Natl Acad Sci USA , 104(51), 20582-10587.
Publication date: 2007
 
Giese M.A., Leopold D.A. (2007) Wie wir Gesichter erkennen. Spektrum der Wissenschaft, 3/7, 20-23.
Publication date: 2007
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Thier P., Giese M.A. (2007) Specific influences of cerebellar dysfunctions on gait. Brain 130 786-798
Publication date: 2007
 
Ilg W., Röhrig R., Thier P., Giese M.A. (2007) Learning-based methods for the analysis of intra-limb coordination and adaptation of locomotor patterns in cerebellar patients. IEEE 10th International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics Noordwijk, The Netherlands 1090-1095
Publication date: 2007
 
Brötz D., Burkhard S., Schöls L., Synofzik M., Ilg W. (2007) Koordination im Mittelpunkt - Physiotherapiekonzept bei zerebellärer Ataxie. Physiopraxis 23-26
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2007) Learning of translation-invariant independent components: multivariate anechoic mixtures. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 4666, 762-769.
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2007) Blind source separation for over-determined delayed mixtures. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems 19, 1049-1056
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2007) Extraction of spatio-temporal primitives of emotional body expressions. Neurocomputing 70(10-12), 1938-1942.
Publication date: 2007
 
Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Thier P., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2007) Neurons in monkey pre-motor cortex (area F5) responding to filmed actions. Perception 36 suppl., 73 . 
Publication date: 2007
 
Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Thier P., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2007) Mirror neurons responding to filmed actions. Proc. of 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience , 3rd-7th November 2007, San Diego (USA).  
Publication date: 2007
 
Curio C., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2007) Perception of dynamic facial expressions probed by a new high-level after-effect. Bülthoff H H, Chatziastros A, Mallot H A, Ulrich R (eds): Proceedings of the 10th. Tübinger Perception Conference (TWK 2007) , Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 111. 
Publication date: 2007
 
Curio C., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2007) High-level after-effects in the recognition of dynamic facial expressions. Journal of Vision 7(9), 994a. . 
Publication date: 2007
 
Curio C., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2007) Aftereffects in the recognition of dynamic facial expressions. Perception 36 suppl., 248.
Publication date: 2007
 
Fleischer F., Giese M.A. (2007) Neural model for the visual recognition of goal-directed hand movements. Bülthoff H H, Chatziastros A, Mallot H A, Ulrich R (eds): Proceedings of the 10th. Tübinger Perception Conference (TWK 2007) , Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 13. 
Publication date: 2007
 
Fleischer F., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2007) Neural model for the visual recognition of goal-directed actions. ESF-EMBO Symposium: Three Dimensional Sensory and Motor Space: Perceptual Consequences of Motor Action , Sant Feliu de Guixols, Spain.
Publication date: 2007
 
Giese M.A., Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Thier P., Casile A. (2007) Mirror neurons encoding the expectation of a reward Proc. of 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience , 3rd-7th November 2007, San Diego (USA). 
Publication date: 2007
 
Mukovskiy A., Giese M.A. (2007) Style synthesis of human body motion based on learned spatio-temporal synergies. Bülthoff H H, Chatziastros A, Mallot H A, Ulrich R (eds): Proceedings of the 10th. Tübinger Perception Conference (TWK 2007) , Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 152.  
Publication date: 2007
 
Park A., Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2007) Synergy-based method for the self-organization of full-body movements with high degree of realism. Bülthoff H H, Chatziastros A, Mallot H A, Ulrich R (eds): Proceedings of the 10th. Tübinger Perception Conference (TWK 2007) , Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 152.  
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2007) Asymmetry of emotions expressed in full-body movement. Perception 36 suppl., 75. . 
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2007) Left-right asymmetry of emotionally expressive full-body movement. Bülthoff H H, Chatziastros A, Mallot H A, Ulrich R (eds): Proceedings of the 10th. Tübinger Perception Conference (TWK 2007) , Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 152.  
Publication date: 2007
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2007) Not just the face: asymmetry of emotional body expression. Journal of Vision 7(9), 554a . 
Publication date: 2007
 
Serre T., Giese M.A. (2007) Rapid Serial Action Presentation: New paradigm for the study of movement recognition. Journal of Vision 7(9), 559a
Publication date: 2007
 
Thier P., Caggiano V., Fogassi L., Rizzolatti G., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2007) Differential encoding of actions in near and far space in the mirror neuron system of monkeys. Proc. of 37th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, 3rd-7th November 2007, San Diego (USA). 
Publication date: 2007
 
Melcón M.L., Denzinger A., Schnitzler H.U. (2007) Aerial hawking and landing: approach behaviour in Natterer's bats, Myotis nattereri (Kuhl 1818). J Experim Biol 210:4457-4464
Publication date: 2007
 
Schaub A., Schnitzler H.U. (2007) Echolocation behavior of the bat Vespertilio murinus reveals the border between the habitat types 'edge' and 'open space'. Behav Ecol Sociobiol 61:513-523
Publication date: 2007
 
Schaub A., Schnitzler H.U. (2007) Flight and echolocation behaviour of three vespertilionid bat species while commuting on flyways J Comp Physiol A 193:1185-1194
Publication date: 2007
 
Gharabaghi A., Saur R., Kunath F., Heckl S., Erb M., Nagele T., Grodd W., Tatagiba M. (2007) Implementation and electrophysiological validation of combined fMRI and DTI imaging for visualization of cortico-subcortical connectivity. Z Med Phys. 2007; 17(4):266-72.
Publication date: 2007
 
Sirota A., Gyorgy Buzsaki (2007) Interaction between hippocampal and neocortical networks via slow oscillations. Thalamus and Related Systems, 3(4):245-259
Publication date: 2007
 
Schaal S., Mohajerian P., Ijspeert A. (2007) Dynamics systems vs. optimal control - a unifying view. Prog Brain Res. 165:425-45.
Publication date: 2007
In the past, computational motor control has been approached from at least two major frameworks: the dynamic systems approach and the viewpoint of optimal control. The dynamic system approach emphasizes motor control as a process of self-organization between an animal and its environment. Nonlinear differential equations that can model entrainment and synchronization behavior are among the most favorable tools of dynamic systems modelers. In contrast, optimal control approaches view motor control as the evolutionary or development result of a nervous system that tries to optimize rather general organizational principles, e.g., energy consumption or accurate task achievement. Optimal control theory is usually employed to develop appropriate theories. Interestingly, there is rather little interaction between dynamic systems and optimal control modelers as the two approaches follow rather different philosophies and are often viewed as diametrically opposing. In this paper, we develop a computational approach to motor control that offers a unifying modeling framework for both dynamic systems and optimal control approaches. In discussions of several behavioral experiments and some theoretical and robotics studies, we demonstrate how our computational ideas allow both the representation of self-organizing processes and the optimization of movement based on reward criteria. Our modeling framework is rather simple and general, and opens opportunities to revisit many previous modeling results from this novel unifying view.
 
Balan A., Sigal L., Black M.J., Davis J., Haussecker H. (2007) Detailed human shape and pose from images. Proc. IEEE Conf. on Computer Vision and Pattern Recognition, CVPR, Minneapolis.
Publication date: 2007
2006
 
 
Hu J., Lewin G.R. (2006) Mechanosensitive currents in the neurites of cultured mouse sensory neurones. J Physiol. 577: 815-28
Publication date: December, 2006
 
Volz K.G., von Cramon D.Y. (2006) What neuroscience can tell about intuitive processes in the context of perceptual discovery. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 18:2077-2087.
Publication date: December, 2006
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, intuition is "the ability to understand or know something immediately, without conscious reasoning." Most people would agree that intuitive responses appear as ideas or feelings that subsequently guide our thoughts and behaviors. It is proposed that people continuously, without conscious attention, recognize patterns in the stream of sensations that impinge upon them. What exactly is being recognized is not clear yet, but we assume that people detect potential content based on only a few aspects of the input (i.e., the gist). The result is a vague perception of coherence which is not explicitly describable but instead embodied in a "gut feeling" or an initial guess, which subsequently biases thought and inquiry. To approach the nature of intuitive processes, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging when participants were working at a modified version of the Waterloo Gestalt Closure Task. Starting from our conceptualization that intuition involves an informed judgment in the context of discovery, we expected activation within the median orbito-frontal cortex (OFC), as this area receives input from all sensory modalities and has been shown to be crucially involved in emotionally driven decisions. Results from a direct contrast between intuitive and nonintuitive judgments, as well as from a parametric analysis, revealed the median OFC, the lateral portion of the amygdala, anterior insula, and ventral occipito-temporal regions to be activated. Based on these findings, we suggest our definition of intuition to be promising and a good starting point for future research on intuitive processes.
 
Selke K., Muller A., Kukley M., Schramm J., Dietrich D. (2006) Firing pattern and calbindin-D28k content of human epileptic granule cells. Brain Research, Nov 20;1120(1):191-201
Publication date: November, 2006
 
Volz K.G., Schooler L.J., Schubotz R.I., Raab M., Gigerenzer G., von Cramon D.Y. (2006) Why you think Milan is larger than Modena: neural correlates of the recognition heuristic. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience. 18:1924-1936.
Publication date: November, 2006
When ranking two alternatives by some criteria and only one of the alternatives is recognized, participants overwhelmingly adopt the strategy, termed the recognition heuristic (RH), of choosing the recognized alternative. Understanding the neural correlates underlying decisions that follow the RH could help determine whether people make judgments about the RH's applicability or simply choose the recognized alternative. We measured brain activity by using functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants indicated which of two cities they thought was larger (Experiment 1) or which city they recognized (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, increased activation was observed within the anterior frontomedian cortex (aFMC), precuneus, and retrosplenial cortex when participants followed the RH compared to when they did not. Experiment 2 revealed that RH decisional processes cannot be reduced to recognition memory processes. As the aFMC has previously been associated with self-referential judgments, we conclude that RH decisional processes involve an assessment about the applicability of the RH.
 
Debener S., Ullsperger M., Siegel M., Engel A. K. (2006) Single-trial EEG-fRMI reveals the dynamics of cognitive function. Trends in Cognitive Sciences 10(12): 558-563
Publication date: October, 2006
 
Hafed Z.M., Krauzlis R. J. (2006) Ongoing eye movements constrain visual perception. Nature Neuroscience, Vol. 9, No. 11, pp. 1449-1457.
Publication date: October, 2006
Eye movements markedly change the pattern of retinal stimulation. To maintain stable vision, the brain possesses a variety of mechanisms that compensate for the retinal consequences of eye movements. However, eye movements may also be important for resolving the ambiguities often posed by visual inputs, because motor commands contain additional spatial information that is necessarily absent from retinal signals. To test this possibility, we used a perceptually ambiguous stimulus composed of four line segments, consistent with a shape whose vertices were occluded. In a passive condition, subjects fixated a spot while the shape translated along a certain trajectory. In several active conditions, the spot, occluder and shape translated such that when subjects tracked the spot, they experienced the same retinal stimulus as during fixation. We found that eye movements significantly promoted perceptual coherence compared to fixation. These results indicate that eye movement information constrains the perceptual interpretation of visual inputs.
 
Boehm J., Ehrlich I., Hsieh H., Malinow R. (2006) Two mutations preventing PDZ-protein interactions of GluR1 have opposite effects on synaptic plasticity. Learn Mem 13:562-5.
Publication date: September, 2006
 
Nienborg H, Cumming B G (2006) Macaque V2 neurons, but not V1 neurons, show choice-related Activity. J Neurosci, 2006: 26:9567-78
Publication date: September, 2006
 
Bartels A. (2006) Neurobiological foundations of mate choice and love. Sexuologie, Vol. 13 (2-4), p.118-129.
Publication date: September, 2006
 
Linnemann C., Schmeh I., Thier P., Schwarz C. (2006) Transient change in GABA(A) receptor subunit mRNA expression in Lurcher cerebellar nuclei during Purkinje cell degeneration. BMC Neurosci 7:59.
Publication date: July, 2006
 
Borgwardt K.M., Gretton A., Rasch M.J., Kriegel H.P., Schölkopf B., Smola A.J. (2006) Integrating structured biological data by Kernel Maximum Mean Discrepancy. Bioinformatics. 22(14):e49-57.
Publication date: July, 2006
MOTIVATION: Many problems in data integration in bioinformatics can be posed as one common question: Are two sets of observations generated by the same distribution? We propose a kernel-based statistical test for this problem, based on the fact that two distributions are different if and only if there exists at least one function having different expectation on the two distributions. Consequently we use the maximum discrepancy between function means as the basis of a test statistic. The Maximum Mean Discrepancy (MMD) can take advantage of the kernel trick, which allows us to apply it not only to vectors, but strings, sequences, graphs, and other common structured data types arising in molecular biology.
RESULTS: We study the practical feasibility of an MMD-based test on three central data integration tasks: Testing cross-platform comparability of microarray data, cancer diagnosis, and data-content based schema matching for two different protein function classification schemas. In all of these experiments, including high-dimensional ones, MMD is very accurate in finding samples that were generated from the same distribution, and outperforms its best competitors. Conclusions: We have defined a novel statistical test of whether two samples are from the same distribution, compatible with both multivariate and structured data, that is fast, easy to implement, and works well, as confirmed by our experiments.
AVAILABILITY: http://www.dbs.ifi.lmu.de/~borgward/MMD.
 
Winter H., Braig C., Zimmermann U., Geisler H.S., Fränzer J.T., Weber T., Ley M., Engel J., Knirsch M., Bauer K., Christ S., Walsh E.J., McGee J., Köpschall I., Rohbock K., Knipper M. (2006) Thyroid hormone receptors TRalpha1 and TRbeta differentially regulate gene expression of Kcnq4 and prestin during final differentiation of outer hair cells. J Cell Sci. 119(Pt 14):2975-84.
Publication date: July, 2006
Thyroid hormone (TH or T3) and TH-receptor beta (TRbeta) have been reported to be relevant for cochlear development and hearing function. Mutations in the TRbeta gene result in deafness associated with resistance to TH syndrome. The effect of TRalpha1 on neither hearing function nor cochlear T3 target genes has been described to date. It is also uncertain whether TRalpha1 and TRbeta can act simultaneously on different target genes within a single cell. We focused on two concomitantly expressed outer hair cell genes, the potassium channel Kcnq4 and the motor protein prestin Slc26a5. In outer hair cells, TH enhanced the expression of the prestin gene through TRbeta. Simultaneously Kcnq4 expression was activated in the same cells by derepression of TRalpha1 aporeceptors mediated by an identified THresponse element, which modulates KCNQ4 promoter activity. We show that T3 target genes can differ in their sensitivity to TH receptors having the ligand either bound (holoreceptors) or not bound (aporeceptors) within single cells, and suggest a role for TRalpha1 in final cell differentiation.
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2006) The temporal order of binding visual attributes. Vision Research, Vol. 46(14), p. 2280-2286.
Publication date: July, 2006
 
Bethge M. (2006) Factorial coding of natural images: how effective are linear models in removing higher-order dependencies? Journal of the Optical Society of America A 23(6)
Publication date: June, 2006
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Treue S. (2006) Spatial and feature-based effects of exogenous cueing on visual motion processing. Vision Research, 46(13):2019–2027.
Publication date: June, 2006
 
Jouvent R., Zeki S., Bartels A. (2006) L’origine des sentiments (p. 63-80). Les Emotions, Paris, Editions Pil.
Publication date: June, 2006
 
Busse L., Katzner S., Treue S. (2006) Spatial and feature-based effects of exogenous cueing on visual motion processing. Vision Research, 46(13):2019–2027.
Publication date: June, 2006
 
Möck M., Butovas S., Schwarz C. (2006) Functional Unity of the Ponto-Cerebellum: Evidence That Intrapontine Communication Is Mediated by a Reciprocal Loop With the Cerebellar Nuclei. J. Neurophysiol. 95:3414-3425.
Publication date: April, 2006
 
Busse L., Katzner S. (2006) The time course of shifting visual attention. The Journal of Neuroscience, 26(15):3885-3886.
Publication date: April, 2006
 
Münch T.A., Werblin F.S. (2006) Symmetric interactions within a homogeneous starburst cell network can lead to robust asymmetries in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. J.Neurophysiol. Jul;96(1):471-7. Epub 2006 Apr 5.
Publication date: April, 2006
Starburst amacrine cells in the mammalian retina respond asymmetrically to movement along their dendrites; centrifugal movement elicits stronger responses in each dendrite than centripetal movement. It has been suggested that the asymmetrical response can be attributed to intrinsic properties of the processes themselves. But starburst cells are known to release and have receptors for both GABA and acetylcholine. We tested whether interactions within the starburst cell network can contribute to their directional response properties. In a computational model of interacting starburst amacrine cells, we simulated the response of individual dendrites to moving light stimuli. By setting the model parameters for "synaptic connection strength" (cs) to positive or negative values, overlapping starburst dendrites could either excite or inhibit each other. For some values of cs, we observed a very robust inward/outward asymmetry of the starburst dendrites consistent with the reported physiological findings. This is the case, for example, if a starburst cell receives inhibition from other starburst cells located in its surround. For other values of cs, individual dendrites can respond best either to inward movement or respond symmetrically. A properly wired network of starburst cells can therefore account for the experimentally observed asymmetry of their response to movement, independent of any internal biophysical or biochemical properties of starburst cell dendrites.
 
Busse L., Katzner S. (2006) The time course of shifting visual attention. Journal of Neuroscience, 26(15):3885–3886.
Publication date: April, 2006
 
Billard A., Schaal S. (2006) Special issue on the brain mechanisms of imitation learning. Neural Netw. 19(3):251-3.
Publication date: April, 2006
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Treue S. (2006) Feature-based attentional integration of color and visual motion. Journal of Vision, 6(3):269–284.
Publication date: March, 2006
 
Katzner S., Busse L., Treue S. (2006) Feature-based attentional integration of color and visual motion. Journal of Vision, 6(3):269–284.
Publication date: March, 2006
 
Seifritz E., Di Salle F., Esposito F., Herdener M., Neuhoff J.G., Scheffler K. (2006) Enhancing BOLD response in the auditory system by neurophysiologically tuned fMRI sequence. Neuroimage. 29(3):1013-22.
Publication date: February, 2006
Auditory neuroscience has not tapped fMRI's full potential because of acoustic scanner noise emitted by the gradient switches of conventional echoplanar fMRI sequences. The scanner noise is pulsed, and auditory cortex is particularly sensitive to pulsed sounds. Current fMRI approaches to avoid stimulus-noise interactions are temporally inefficient. Since the sustained BOLD response to pulsed sounds decreases with repetition rate and becomes minimal with unpulsed sounds, we developed an fMRI sequence emitting continuous rather than pulsed gradient sound by implementing a novel quasi-continuous gradient switch pattern. Compared to conventional fMRI, continuous-sound fMRI reduced auditory cortex BOLD baseline and increased BOLD amplitude with graded sound stimuli, short sound events, and sounds as complex as orchestra music with preserved temporal resolution. Response in subcortical auditory nuclei was enhanced, but not the response to light in visual cortex. Finally, tonotopic mapping using continuous-sound fMRI demonstrates that enhanced functional signal-to-noise in BOLD response translates into improved spatial separability of specific sound representations.
 
Duebel J., Haverkamp S., Schleich W., Feng G., Augustine G.J., Kuner T., Euler T. (2006) Two-Photon Imaging Reveals Somatodendritic Chloride Gradient in Retinal ON-Type Bipolar Cells Expressing the Biosensor Clomeleon. Neuron 49:81-94.
Publication date: January, 2006
 
Hentschke H., Haiss F., Schwarz C. (2006) Central signals rapidly switch tactile processing in rat barrel cortex during whisker movements. Cerebral Cortex 16:1142-1156
Publication date: 2006
 
Stüttgen M.C., Rüter J., Schwarz C. (2006) Two psychophysical channels of whisker deflection in rats align with two neuronal classes of primary afferents. J Neurosci 26:7933-7941
Publication date: 2006
 
Butovas S., Hormuzdi S.G., Monyer H., Schwarz C. (2006) Effects of electrically coupled inhibitory networks on local neuronal responses to intracortical microstimulation. J Neurophysiol 96:1227-1236
Publication date: 2006
 
Hu J., Milenkovic N., Lewin G.R. (2006) The high threshold mechanotransducer: a status report. Pain 120(1-2): 3-7
Publication date: 2006
 
Graf M., Reitzner B., Corves C., Casile A., Giese M.A., Prinz W. (2006) Predicting point-light actions in real-time. Neuroimage, 36 suppl 2, T22-23.
Publication date: 2006
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2006) Non-visual motor learning influences the recognition of biological motion. Current Biology, 16(1), 69-74.
Publication date: 2006
 
Casile A., Rucci M. (2006) A theoretical analysis of the influence of fixational instability on the development of thalamocortical connectivity. Neural Computation, 18, 569-590.
Publication date: 2006
 
Curio C., Breidt M., Kleiner M., Vuong Q.C., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2006) Semantic 3D motion retargetting facial animation. ACM Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization (2006), Boston, MA, ACM press, 77-84.
Publication date: 2006
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2006) Learning to discriminate complex movements: Natural vs. artificial trajectories. Journal of Vision, 6, 791-804.
Publication date: 2006
 
Leopold D.A., Bondar I.V., Giese M.A. (2006) Norm-based face encoding by single neurons in the monkey inferotemporal cortex. Nature 442, 572-575.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2006) Unsupervised learning of spatio-temporal primitives of emotional gait. Perception and Interactive Technologies 2006, Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 4021, Springer, New York, pp. 188-192.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2006) Learning and perceiving informative spatio-temporal components from emotional body expressions.  Journal of Vision 6, 795a
Publication date: 2006
 
Graf M., Reitzner B., Casile A., Prinz W., Giese M.A. (2006) Predicting point-light actions in real-time.  Journal of Vision 6, 793a.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A. (2006) Extraction of spatio-temporal primitives of emotional body expressions. Meeting of the Organization of Computational Neuroscience (CNS), Edinburgh, UK, in press.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2006) Unsupervised learning of perceptional important features in emotional body expressions. In: H.H. Bülthoff, K. Gegenfurtner, H.A. Mallot & R. Ulrich (eds.) Beiträge zur 9. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. Kirchentellinsfurt: Knirsch.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2006) Extraction of spatio-temporal primitives from emotional gait patterns. 5th Forum of European Neurosciences (FENS), Vienna, Austria.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2006) Optimal Bayesian integration of components during the visual recognition of emotional body expressions. 6th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society, Sarasota, FL, USA.
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Giese M.A., Roether C.L. (2006) Optimal bayesian integration of components during the visual recognition of emotional body expressions Journal of Vision 6, 1040a
Publication date: 2006
 
Omlor L., Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2006) Optimal integration of movement components for the visual recognition of emotional body expressions. In: H.H. Bülthoff, K. Gegenfurtner, H.A. Mallot & R. Ulrich (eds.), TWK 2006, Beiträge zur 9. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. Kirchentellinsfurt: Knirsch..
Publication date: 2006
 
Schnitzler H.U., Thies W., Kalko E.K.V. (2006) Influence of environment and resource availability on activity of Carollia castanea (Phyllostomidae) in Panama. Journal of Mammalogy 87, 331-338
Publication date: 2006
 
Gharabaghi A., Fruhmann Berger M., Tatagiba M., Karnath H.O. (2006) The role of the right superior temporal gyrus in visual search-insights from intraoperative electrical stimulation. Neuropsychologia. 2006; 44(12):2578-81.
Publication date: 2006
 
Schmajuk M., Liotti M., Busse L., Woldorff M.G. (2006) Electrophysiological activity underlying inhibitory control processes in normal adults. Neuropsychologia, 44(3):384–395.
Publication date: 2006
 
Chapelle O., Schölkopf B., Zien A. (2006) Semi-Supervised Learning. Cambridge, MA, USA: MIT Press.
Publication date: 2006
In the field of machine learning, semi-supervised learning (SSL) occupies the middle ground, between supervised learning (in which all training examples are labeled) and unsupervised learning (in which no label data are given). Interest in SSL has increased in recent years, particularly because of application domains in which unlabeled data are plentiful, such as images, text, and bioinformatics. This first comprehensive overview of SSL presents state-of-the-art algorithms, a taxonomy of the field, selected applications, benchmark experiments, and perspectives on ongoing and future research.
Semi-Supervised Learning first presents the key assumptions and ideas underlying the field: smoothness, cluster or low-density separation, manifold structure, and transduction. The core of the book is the presentation of SSL methods, organized according to algorithmic strategies. After an examination of generative models, the book describes algorithms that implement the low-density separation assumption, graph-based methods, and algorithms that perform two-step learning. The book then discusses SSL applications and offers guidelines for SSL practitioners by analyzing the results of extensive benchmark experiments. Finally, the book looks at interesting directions for SSL research. The book closes with a discussion of the relationship between semi-supervised learning and transduction.
 
Garaschuk O., Milos R.I., Konnerth A. (2006) Targeted bulk-loading of fluorescent indicators for two-photon brain imaging in vivo. Nat Protoc. 1(1):380-6.
Publication date: 2006
One of the challenges for modern neuroscience is to understand the rules of concerted neuronal function in vivo. This question can be addressed using noninvasive high-resolution imaging techniques like two-photon microscopy. This protocol describes a versatile approach for in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neural networks, stained with membrane-permeant fluorescent-indicator dyes. It is based on a targeted pressure ejection of the dye into the tissue of interest and can be used for a large spectrum of indicator dyes, including Oregon Green 488 BAPTA-1 acetoxymethyl ester and Fura-2 acetoxymethyl ester. Through the use of dye mixtures and multicolor imaging, this technique allows the visualization of distinct neurons and glial cells up to 500 microm below the brain surface. It is suitable for staining the brain tissue of various different species (e.g., mouse, rat, cat and zebrafish) at all developmental stages. When combined with brain microendoscopy, it allows the monitoring of intracellular calcium signals in awake, behaving animals. The total time required to carry out the protocol, including dissection and cell staining, is approximately 2 h. Thereafter, imaging experiments might be performed for at least 6 h.
2005
 
 
Debener S., Ullsperger M., Siegel M., Fiehler K., von Cramon D.Y. , Engel A. K. (2005) Trial-by-trial coupling of concurrent electroencephalogram and functional magnetic resonance imaging identifies the dynamics of performance monitoring. Journal of Neuroscience 25: 11730-7
Publication date: December, 2005
 
Busse L., Roberts K.C., Crist R.E., Weissman D.H., Woldorff M.G. (2005) The spread of attention across modalities and space in a multisensory object. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA, 102(51):18751–18756.
Publication date: December, 2005
 
Nienborg H, Bridge H, Parker AJ, Cumming B G (2005) Neuronal Computation of Disparity in V1 Limits Temporal Resolution for Disparity Modulation J Neurosci, 2005: 25:10207-19
Publication date: November, 2005
 
Oesch N., Euler T., Taylor W.R. (2005) Direction-selective dendritic action potentials in rabbit retina. Neuron 47:739-750.
Publication date: September, 2005
 
Gharabaghi A., Hellwig D., Rosahl S.K. , Shahidi R., Schrader C., Freund H.J., Samii M. (2005) Volumetric image guidance for motor cortex stimulation: integration of three-dimensional cortical anatomy and functional imaging. Neurosurgery. 2005 Jul; 57(1 Suppl):114-20.
Publication date: July, 2005
 
Haverkamp S., Wassle H., Duebel J., Kuner T., Augustine G.J., Feng G., Euler T. (2005) The primordial, blue-cone color system of the mouse retina. J Neurosci 25:5438-5445.
Publication date: June, 2005
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2005) The chronoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London.
Publication date: April, 2005
 
Schwarz C., Horowski A., Möck M., Thier P. (2005) Organization of tectopontine terminals within the pontine nuclei of the rat and their spatial relationship to terminals from the visual and somatosensory cortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 484:283–298.
Publication date: April, 2005
 
Fried S.I., Münch T.A., Werblin F.S. (2005) Directional selectivity is formed at multiple levels by laterally offset inhibition in the rabbit retina. Neuron.7;46(1):117-27
Publication date: April, 2005
The excitatory and inhibitory inputs to directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells are themselves directionally selective. Directionality is achieved because excitation is reduced during null-direction movement along a GABAergic pathway. Inhibition is reduced during preferred-direction movement along a pathway that includes cholinergic synapses. Both excitation and inhibition are made directional by laterally offset inhibitory signals similar to the spatial offset of the direct inhibitory input to the DS cell dendrites. Thus, spatially offset lateral inhibition generates directionality at three different levels in the DS circuitry. We also found that for stimuli falling within the dendritic field, cholinergic input is delivered to the OFF but not the ON dendrites. Cholinergic pathways from outside the dendritic field reach both ON and OFF dendrites, but both of these pathways are normally inactivated by GABAergic synapses.
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2005) Brain dynamics during natural viewing conditions - a new guide for mapping connectivity in vivo. NeuroImage, Vol. 24(2), p. 339-349.
Publication date: January, 2005
 
Hentschke H., Schwarz C., Antkowiak B. (2005) Neocortex is the major target of sedative concentrations of volatile anaesthetics: strong depression of firing rates and increase of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibition. Eur. J. Neurosci. 21:93-102.
Publication date: January, 2005
 
Haiss F., Schwarz C. (2005) Spatial segregation of different modes of movement control in the whisker representation of rat primary motor cortex J Neurosci 25:1579-1587
Publication date: 2005
 
Kukley M., Schwan M., Fredholm B.B., Dietrich D. (2005) The role of extracellular adenosine in regulating mossy fiber synaptic plasticity. J. Neurosci. 25(11):2832-2837.
Publication date: 2005
 
Muller A., Kukley M., Stausberg P., Beck H., Muller W., Dietrich D. (2005) Endogenous Ca2+ buffer concentration and Ca2+ microdomains in hippocampal neurons. J. Neurosci. 25(3):558-565.
Publication date: 2005
 
McIlwrath S.L., Hu J., Anirudhan G., Shin J.B., Lewin G.R. (2005) The sensory mechanotransduction ion channel ASIC2 (acid sensitive ion channel 2) is regulated by neurotrophin availability. Neuroscience 131: 499-511.
Publication date: 2005
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2005) Critical features for the recognition of biological motion. Journal of Vision, 5, 348-360
Publication date: 2005
 
Curio C., Giese M.A. (2005) Combining view-based and model-based tracking of articulated human movements. I7th IEEE Workshop on Applications of Computer Vision / IEEE Workshop on Motion and Video Computing (WACV/MOTION  2005), 5-7 January 2005, Breckenridge, CO, USA, pp. 261-268.
Publication date: 2005
 
Giese M.A. (2005) Computational principles for the recognition of biological movements.  G. Knoblich, I.M. Thornton, M. Grosjean, M. Shiffrar (eds.): Perception of the Human Body from the Inside Out, pp. 323-359.
Publication date: 2005
 
Giese M.A., Leopold D.A. (2005) Physiologically inspired neural model for the encoding of face spaces. Neurocomputing 65-66, 93-101.
Publication date: 2005
 
Mezger J., Ilg W., Giese M.A. (2005) Trajectory synthesis by hierarchical spatio-temporal correspondence: comparison of different methods. ACM Symposium on Applied Perception in Graphics and Visualization 2005, A Coruña, Spain, August 26- 28, 2005, ACM press, pp. 25-32.
Publication date: 2005
 
Rucci M., Casile A. (2005) Fixational instability and natural image statistics: implications for early visual representations. Network, 16(2-3), 121-38
Publication date: 2005
 
Sigala R., Serre T., Poggio T., Giese M.A. (2005) Learning features of intermediate complexity for the recognition of biological motion. Proceedings of the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN 2005), Springer, Berlin, pp. 241-246.
Publication date: 2005
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2005) Possible influences of non-visual motor training on the perception of biological motion. 9th European Congress of Psychology, Granada, Spain - Invited Talk
Publication date: 2005
 
Graf M., Prinz W., Casile A., Giese M.A. (2005) Predicting point-light actions. In: Hommel B, Band G P H, Heij L W, Wolters G (eds) Proceedings of the 14th Meeting of the European Society for Cognitive Psychology, Leiden: European Society for Cognitive Psychology, 40.
Publication date: 2005
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Giese M.A. (2005) Velocity-dependent stability of gait for patients with balance impairments can be explained by biomechanical stabilization. XVIIth Conference of the International Society for Postural and Gait Research
Publication date: 2005
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2005) Learning of biological motion: Combining fMRI and theoretical modeling. In: H.H. Bülthoff , H.A.Mallot, R. Ulrich, F.A. Wichmann (eds): Beiträge zur 8. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2005
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2005) Neural plasticity mechanisms for learning of biological motion. 5th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society
Publication date: 2005
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2005) Visual learning of complex movements: Investigation of neural plasticity mechanisms. Perception 34 Suppl.
Publication date: 2005
 
Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2005) Integration of synergies in visual recognition of emotional human walking. 5th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society
Publication date: 2005
 
Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2005) Recognizing emotions expressed in human walking: integration of synergies. In: H.H. Bülthoff , H.A.Mallot, R. Ulrich, F.A. Wichmann (eds): Beiträge zur 8. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2005
 
Roether C.L., Giese M.A. (2005) Statistically optimal integration of synergies in the visual perception of emotion from gait. Perception 34 Suppl.
Publication date: 2005
 
Sarkheil P., Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2005) Categorization of complex dynamic patterns in the human brain. In: H.H. Bülthoff , H.A.Mallot, R. Ulrich, F.A. Wichmann (eds): Beiträge zur 8. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2005
 
Sarkheil P., Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2005) Categorization of complex dynamic patterns in the human brain. 5th Annual Meeting of the Vision Sciences Society
Publication date: 2005
 
Boonman A., Schnitzler H.U. (2005) Frequency modulation patterns in the echolocation signals of two vespertilionid bats. J Comp Physiol A 191:13-21
Publication date: 2005
 
Verfuß U.K., Miller L.A., Schnitzler H.U. (2005) Spatial orientiation in echolocating harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) J Experim Biol 208: 3385-3394
Publication date: 2005
 
Hermle T., Schwarz C., Bogdan M., Rosenstiel W. (2005) ANN-based System for Sorting Spike Waveforms Employing Refractory Periods. ICANN 2005, Lecture Notes in Computer Science 3696:121-126.
Publication date: 2005
2004
 
 
Hasan M.T., Friedrich R.W., Euler T., Larkum M.E., Giese G., Both M., Duebel J., Waters J., Bujard H., Griesbeck O., Tsien R.Y., Nagai T., Miyawaki A., Denk W. (2004) Functional fluorescent Ca2+ indicator proteins in transgenic mice under TET control. PLoS Biol 2:e163.
Publication date: June, 2004
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2004) The chronoarchitecture of the human brain: functional anatomy based on natural brain dynamics and on the principle of functional independence. Human Brain Function, 2nd edition, Academic Press, p. 201-229.
Publication date: June, 2004
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2004) The chronoarchitecture of the human brain - natural viewing conditions reveal a time-based anatomy of the brain. NeuroImage, Vol. 22(1), p. 419-433.
Publication date: May, 2004
 
Hermle T., Schwarz C., Bogdan M. (2004) Employing ICA and SOM for spike sorting of multielectrode recordings from CNS. J. Physiol. (Paris) 98:349-56.
Publication date: April, 2004
 
Linnemann C., Sultan F., Pedroarena C.M., Schwarz C., Thier P. (2004) Lurcher Mice Exhibit Potentiation of GABAA-Receptor–Mediated Conductance in Cerebellar Nuclei Neurons in Close Temporal Relationship to Purkinje Cell Death. J. Neurophysiol. 91: 1102-1107.
Publication date: April, 2004
 
Nienborg H, Bridge H, Parker AJ, Cumming B G (2004) Receptive Field Size in V1 Neurons Limits Acuity for Perceiving Disparity Modulation J Neurosci, 2004: 24:2065-76
Publication date: March, 2004
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2004) The neural correlates of maternal and romantic love. NeuroImage, Vol. 17(11), p. 3829-3834.
Publication date: March, 2004
 
Silberberg G., Bethge M., Markram H., Pawelzik K. , Tsodyks M. (2004) Dynamics of Population Rate Codes in Ensembles of Neocortical Neurons. Journal of Neurophysiology 91(2)
Publication date: February, 2004
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2004) Functional brain mapping during free viewing of natural scenes. Human Brain Mapping, Vol. 21(2), p. 75-83. Listed in ‘Faculty of 1000’.
Publication date: February, 2004
 
Ehrlich I., Malinow R. (2004) Postsynaptic density 95 controls AMPA-receptor incorporation during Long-Term Potentiation and experience-driven synaptic plasticity. J Neurosci 24:916-927.
Publication date: January, 2004
 
Kukley M., Stausberg P., Adelmann G., Gabel A., Chessell I., Dietrich D. (2004) Ecto-nucleotidases and nucleoside transporters mediate activation of adenosine receptors on hippocampal mossy fibers by P2X7 receptor agonist 2'-3'-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)-ATP. J. Neurosci. 24(32):7128-7139
Publication date: 2004
 
Giese M.A. (2004) Neural model for biological movement recognition: A Neurophysiologically Plausible Theory Optic Flow and Beyond. Kluwer Academic Publihers, Dordrecht, NL, pp. 443-470.
Publication date: 2004
 
Ilg W., Bakir G.H., Mezger J., Giese M.A. (2004) On the representation, learning and transfer of spatio-temporal movement characteristics. International Journal of Humanoid Robotics, Vol 1, Number 4, pp 613-636.
Publication date: 2004
 
Jastorff J., Giese M.A. (2004) Time-dependent hebbian rules for the learning of templates for visual motion recognition. In Ilg U, Bülthoff HH, Mallot H (eds): Dynamic Perception; Infix, Berlin, 151-156.
Publication date: 2004
 
Rucci M., Casile A. (2004) Decorrelation of neural activity during fixational eye movements: Possible implications for the refinement of V1 receptive fields. Visual Neuroscience, 21(5):725-733.
Publication date: 2004
 
Golla H., Ilg W., Giese M.A., Thier P. (2004) Quantifizierung raum-zeitlicher Bewegungscharakteristiken fuer cerebellaer ataktischen Gang.  77. Kongress der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Neurologie. Duesseldorf, Oktober 2004. POSTER AWARD of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Neurologie.
Publication date: 2004
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Thier P., Giese M.A. (2004) Quantification of Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of  Walking Trajectories of Cerebellat Patients. 13th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Movement Analysis in Adults and Children. Warschau, September, 2004. 
Publication date: 2004
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2004) Does non/visual motor training influence the recognition of biological motion? In: Bülthoff HH, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 7. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 79.
Publication date: 2004
 
Wallraven C., Leopold D.A., Giese M.A., Sigala R. (2004) Neuerophysiologically inspired adaptive model for the encoding of face spaces. In: Kerzel D., Franz F, Gegenfurtner K (eds): Beiträge zur 46. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen, Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany, 89.
Publication date: 2004
 
Wallraven C., Leopold D.A., Giese M.A., Sigala R. (2004) Physiologically inspired neural model for the prototype-referenced encoding of faces. Proceedings of the Vision Science Society (VSS). Sarasota, USA, May 2004, in press.
Publication date: 2004
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Wiestler T., Giese M.A., Thier P. (2004) Quantification of the spatio-temporal Characteristics of  Walking Trajectories of patients suffering from cerebellar disease . TWK. In: Bülthoff HH, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 7. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2004
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Wiestler T., Thier P., Giese M.A. (2004) To the Impact of the Cerebellum for inter-joint Coordination. Annual Meeting on Neural Movement Control. Sitges, Spain.
Publication date: 2004
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2004) Neural correlates of the learning of biological motion: An fMRI adaptation experiment. In: Bülthoff HH, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 7. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2004
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2004) fMRI adaptation dissociates multiple areas involved in biological motion recognition. In Kerzel D, Franz V, Gegenfurtner K (eds): Beiträge zur 46. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen; Papst Science Publishers, Lengerich 126.
Publication date: 2004
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2004) Perceptual learning of novel biological movements in the human visual brain. 34th Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, United States.
Publication date: 2004
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2004) Funktionelle kernspintomographische Untersuchungen zur Grundlage des visuellen Lernens komplexer biologischer Bewegungen. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Klinische Neurophysiologie, Jena, Germany.
Publication date: 2004
 
Knappmeyer B., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A. (2004) Knappmeyer B K, Giese M A, Bülthoff H H (2004) Facial motion and the carivature effect. In: Kerzel D, Franz F, Gegenfurtner K (eds): Beiträge zur 46. Tagung experimentell arbeitender Psychologen. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, Germany, 141.
Publication date: 2004
 
Sigala R., Wallraven C., Giese M.A., Leopold D.A. (2004) Physiologically plausible model for the prototype-referenced encoding of faces. TWK. In: Bülthoff HH, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 7. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 144.
Publication date: 2004
 
Rasmussen C.E., Bülthoff H.H., Giese M.A., Schölkopf B. (2004) 2004) (eds) Pattern Recognition. 26th DAGM Syposium, Tübingen, Germany, August 30 - September 1, 2004, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2781, Springer, Berlin, German
Publication date: 2004
 
Siemers B.M., Schnitzler H.U. (2004) Echolocation signals reflect niche differentiation in five sympatric congeneric bat species. Nature 429:657-661
Publication date: 2004
2003
 
 
White R.H., Xu H., Münch T.A., Bennett R.R., Grable E.A. (2003) The retina of Manduca sexta: rhodopsin expression, the mosaic of green-, blue- and UV-sensitive photoreceptors, and regional specialization. J Exp Biol. 2003 Oct;206(Pt 19):3337-48.
Publication date: October, 2003
Spectral sensitivities of individual photoreceptors in the compound eye of Manduca sexta were verified by immunocytochemistry, and the retinal mosaic was mapped, using polyclonal antisera raised against amino-terminal sequences of three identified rhodopsins: P520, P450 and P357. Retinulae are composed of a small proximal cell and seven or eight elongate cells extending across the retina. In each retinula, one or two elongate dv cells oriented in the dorsal-ventral axis of the retinal lattice express either P450 or P357. Six elongate ap and ob cells in the anterior-posterior and oblique axes express P520. The small proximal pr cell also appears to express P520. The retinal mosaic is regionalized into three distinct domains: ventral and dorsal domains that divide the main retina, and a large dorsal rim area. The immunocytochemical data provide a high-resolution map of the Manduca retina that confirms and refines earlier low-resolution ERG spectral sensitivity measurements. The dorsal and ventral domains, separated at a well-defined equatorial border, are distinguished by differences in the proportion of blue-sensitive dv cells: these cells dominate the ventral retina but are less abundant in the dorsal retina. Green-sensitive ap and ob receptors are uniformly distributed across the dorsal and ventral domains, and UV-sensitive dv cells are fairly uniformly distributed because many retinulae in the dorsal domain contain only one dv cell. Similarly, dorsal rim retinulae contain only the ventral member of the dv pair of receptors, two-thirds of which express P357. Otherwise, dorsal rim receptors express none of the three sequenced Manduca opsins; they must express rhodopsins that have yet to be cloned.
 
Beccari T., Bibi L., Ricci R., Antuzzi D., Burgalossi A, Costanzi E., Orlacchio A. (2003) Two novel mutations in the gene for human alpha-mannosidase that cause alpha-mannosidosis. J Inherit Metab Dis.
Publication date: August, 2003
 
Sato T., Schall J.D. (2003) Effects of stimulus-response compatibility on neural selection in frontal eye field. Neuron. 38(4):637-48.
Publication date: May, 2003
We investigated the neural basis of visual and saccade selection in the frontal eye field of macaque monkeys using a singleton search task with prosaccade or antisaccade responses. Two types of neurons were distinguished. The first initially selected the singleton even in antisaccade trials, although most subsequently selected the endpoint of the saccade. The time the singleton was located was not affected by stimulus-response compatibility and did not vary with reaction time across trials. The second type of neuron selected only the endpoint of the saccade. The time of endpoint selection by these neurons accounted for most of the effect of stimulus-response compatibility on reaction time. These results indicate that visual selection and saccade selection are different processes.
 
Siegel M., König P. (2003) A functional Gamma-Band Defined by Stimulus-Dependent Synchronization in Area 18 of Awake Behaving Cats. Journal of Neuroscience 23: 4251-4260
Publication date: May, 2003
 
Bethge M., Rotermund D., Pawelzik K. (2003) Optimal neural rate coding leads to bimodal firing rate distributions. Network 14(2), 303-319
Publication date: May, 2003
 
Dietrich D., Kirschstein T., Kukley M., Pereverzev A., Brelie C., Schneider T., Beck H. (2003) Functional Specialization of Presynaptic Cav2.3 Ca2+ Channels. Neuron 39(3):483-496
Publication date: April, 2003
 
Busse L., Woldorff M.G. (2003) The ERP omitted stimulus response to “no-stim” events and its implications for fast-rate event-related fMRI designs. Neuroimage, 18(4):856–864.
Publication date: April, 2003
 
Bethge M., Rotermund D., Pawelzik K. (2003) Second Order Phase Transition in Neural Rate Coding: Binary Encoding is Optimal for Rapid Signal Transmission Physical Review Letters 90(8:088104), 1-4
Publication date: February, 2003
 
Pedroarena C.M., Schwarz C. (2003) Efficacy and short-term plasticity at GABAergic synapses between Purkinje and cerebellar nuclei neurons. J Neurophysiol. 89: 704-715.
Publication date: February, 2003
 
Zeki S., Perry R.J., Bartels A. (2003) The Processing of Kinetic Contours in the Brain. Cerebral Cortex, Vol. 13(2), p. 189-202.
Publication date: February, 2003
 
Butovas S., Schwarz C. (2003) Spatiotemporal effects of microstimulation in rat neocortex: a parametric study using multielectrode recordings. J Neurophysiol 90: 3024
Publication date: 2003
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2003) Roles of motion and form in biological motion recognition. O. Kaynak, E. Alpaydin, E. Oja, L. Xu (eds.) Artifical Networks and Neural Information Processing.  Lecture Notes in Computer Science 2714, pp. 854-862.
Publication date: 2003
 
Giese M.A. (2003) Learning recurrent neural models with minimal complexity. Neurocomputing 52–54, 277– 283.
Publication date: 2003
 
Poggio T., Giese M.A. (2003) Neural mechanisms for the recognition of biological movements and action. Nature Reviews Neuroscience 4, 179-192.
Publication date: 2003
 
Hock H.S., Schöner G., Giese M.A. (2003) The dynamical foundations of motion pattern formation: stability, selective adaptation, and perceptual continuity. Perception and Psychophysics 65, 429-457.
Publication date: 2003
 
Ilg W., Bakir G.H., Franz M.O., Giese M.A. (2003) Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Morphable Models for Representation of complex movements for Imitation Learning. In Proceedings of the 11th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Robotics, Coimbra, Juni 2003, pp 453-458
Publication date: 2003
 
Ilg W., Bakir G.H., Mezger J., Giese M.A. (2003) On the Representation, Learning and Transfer of Spatio-Temporal Movement Characteristics. In Proceedings of the 3th IEEE International Conference on Humanoid Robotics, Karlsruhe, Oktober 2003.
Publication date: 2003
 
Ilg W., Mezger J., Giese M.A. (2003) Estimation of Skill Levels in Sports based on Hierarchical Spatio-Temporal Correspondences. Ilg W, Mezger J, Giese M A (2003)
Publication date: 2003
 
Bakir G.H., Ilg W., Franz M.O., Giese M.A. (2003) Constraints measures and reproduction of style in robot imitation learning.TWK. In: Bülthoff HH, Gegenfurtner KR, Mallot H A, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 6. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 70.
Publication date: 2003
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2003) Motion and Form information in the recognition of point-light stimuli. In: Bülthoff HH, Gegenfurtner KR, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann F A (eds): Beiträge zur 6. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 91. 
Publication date: 2003
 
Ilg W., Franz M.O., Bakir G.H., Giese M.A. (2003) Representation of Complex Movement Sequences based on Hierarchical Spatio-temporal Correspondence for Imitation Learning in Robotics. In: Bülthoff HH, Gegenfurtner KR, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 6. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt.
Publication date: 2003
 
Thornton I.M., Edelman S., Giese M.A. (2003) Metric category spaces of biological motion. Journal of Vision 3, 83a.
Publication date: 2003
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2003) Learning of natural and synthetic biological motion. In: N. Elsner and H. Zimmermann (eds): Proceedings of the 5th Meeting of the German Neuroscience Society; Thieme, Stuttgart, 627.
Publication date: 2003
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2003) Role of learning in biological motion recognition. Journal of Vision; 3, 84a.
Publication date: 2003
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2003) Learning of artificial biological motion: Comparison between natural and synthetic trajectories. In: Bülthoff HH, Gegenfurtner KR, Mallot HA, Ulrich R, Wichmann FA (eds): Beiträge zur 6. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 152.
Publication date: 2003
 
Knappmeyer B., Ilg W., Giese M.A. (2003) Spatio-temporal caricatures of facial motion. In: Bültho H H, Gegenfurtner K R, Mallot H A,
Publication date: 2003
 
Ulrich R., Wichmann F.A. (2003) Beiträge zur 6. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz; Knirsch, Kirchentellinsfurt, 153.
Publication date: 2003
 
Leopold D.A., Giese M.A., Logothetis N.K., Bondar I.V. (2003) Prototype-referenced encoding of faces in the monkey inferotemporal cortex. Society of Neuroscience, Poster no. 590.7.
Publication date: 2003
 
Giese M.A., Edelman S., Thornton I.M. (2003) Representing biological motion. Perception, 32 suppl.,
Publication date: 2003
 
Huang L., Max M., Margolskee R.F., Su H., Masland R.H., Euler T. (2003) G protein subunit G gamma 13 is coexpressed with G alpha o, G beta 3, and G beta 4 in retinal ON bipolar cells. J Comp Neurol 455:1-10
Publication date: 2003
 
Euler T. (2003) Richtungsmelder im Auge. Gehirn & Geist (Verlag Spektrum der Wissenschaft) 4:64-67
Publication date: 2003
 
Schnitzler H.U., Moss C.F., Denzinger A. (2003) From spatial orientation to food acquisition in echolocating bats. Trends Ecol Evol 18:386-394
Publication date: 2003
2002
 
 
Woldorff M.G., Liotti M., Seabolt M., Busse L., Lancaster J.L., Fox P.T. (2002) The temporal dynamics of the effects in occipital cortex of visual-spatial selective attention. Cognitive Brain Research, 15(1):1–15.
Publication date: December, 2002
 
Fried S.I., Münch T.A., Werblin F.S. (2002) Mechanisms and circuitry underlying directional selectivity in the retina. Nature 420(6914):411-4
Publication date: November, 2002
In the retina, directionally selective ganglion cells respond with robust spiking to movement in their preferred direction, but show minimal response to movement in the opposite, or null, direction. The mechanisms and circuitry underlying this computation have remained controversial. Here we show, by isolating the excitatory and inhibitory inputs to directionally selective cells and measuring direct connections between these cells and presynaptic neurons, that a presynaptic interneuron, the starburst amacrine cell, delivers direct inhibition to directionally selective cells. The processes of starburst cells are connected asymmetrically to directionally selective cells: those pointing in the null direction deliver inhibition; those pointing in the preferred direction do not. Starburst cells project inhibition laterally ahead of a stimulus moving in the null direction. In addition, starburst inhibition is itself directionally selective: it is stronger for movement in the null direction. Excitation in response to null direction movement is reduced by an inhibitory signal acting at a site that is presynaptic to the directionally selective cell. The interplay of these components generates reduced excitation and enhanced inhibition in the null direction, thereby ensuring robust directional selectivity.
 
Bethge M., Rotermund D., Pawelzik K. (2002) Optimal Short-Term Population Coding: When Fisher Information Fails. Neural Computation 14(10), 2317-2351
Publication date: October, 2002
 
Seifritz E., Esposito F., Hennel F., Mustovic H., Neuhoff J.G., Bilecen D., Tedeschi G., Scheffler K., Di Salle F. (2002) Spatiotemporal pattern of neural processing in the human auditory cortex. Science. 297(5587):1706-8.
Publication date: September, 2002
The principles that the auditory cortex uses to decipher a stream of acoustic information have remained elusive. Neural responses in the animal auditory cortex can be broadly classified into transient and sustained activity. We examined the existence of similar principles in the human brain. Sound-evoked, blood oxygen level-dependent signal response was decomposed temporally into independent transient and sustained constituents, which predominated in different portions-core and belt-of the auditory cortex. Converging with unit recordings, our data suggest that this spatiotemporal pattern in the auditory cortex may represent a fundamental principle of analyzing sound information.
 
Ilg W., Golla H., Giese M.A., Thier P. (2002) Quantitative Movement Analysis based on Hierarchical Spatial Temporal Correspondence of Movement Primitives. 11th Annual Meeting of the European Society for Movement Analysis in Adults and Children. Leuven,
Publication date: September, 2002
 
Euler T., Detwiler P.B., Denk W. (2002) Directionally selective calcium signals in dendrites of starburst amacrine cells. Nature 418:845-852.
Publication date: August, 2002
 
Möck M., Schwarz C., Thier P. (2002) Serotonergic Control of Cerebellar Mossy Fiber Activity by Modulation of Signal Transfer by Rat Pontine Nuclei Neurons J. Neurophysiol. 88: 549-564
Publication date: August, 2002
 
Lutzenberger W., Ripper B., Busse L., Birbaumer N., Kaiser J. (2002) Dynamics of gamma-band activity during an audiospatial working memory task in humans. Journal of Neuroscience, 22(13):5630–5638.
Publication date: July, 2002
 
Bethge M., Pawelzik K. (2002) Population coding with unreliable spikes. Neurocomputing 44-46, 323-328 (06 2002)
Publication date: June, 2002
 
Bartels A., Zeki S. (2002) Hirnkorrelate der Liebe. Geist & Gehirn, 3, p. 40-41.
Publication date: June, 2002
 
Egert U., Knott T., Schwarz C., Nawrot M., Brandt A., Rotter S., Diesmann M. (2002) MEA-Tools: an open source toolbox for the analysis of multi-electrode data with MATLAB. J. Neurosci. Methods 117: 33-42.
Publication date: May, 2002
 
Hafed Z.M., Clark J. J. (2002) Microsaccades as an overt measure of covert attention shifts Vision Research, Vol. 42, No. 22, pp. 2533-2545.
Publication date: January, 2002
Microsaccades, or tiny eye movements that take place during periods of fixation, have long been thought to be random artifacts of the oculomotor system. Here we demonstrate a possible link between microsaccades and covert attention shifts. We designed two psychophysical tasks involving spatial cues that had identical sensory stimuli but differing patterns of attentional benefits and costs. We found that microsaccades, rather than being randomly distributed, had directions that were directly correlated with the directions of covert attention shifts in the two tasks. Our results suggest that microsaccades occur because of subliminal activation of the oculomotor system by covert attention.
 
Rotermund D., Pawelzik K. , Bethge M. (2002) Binary tuning is optimal for neural rate coding with high temporal resolution. Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, 8, MIT Press, Cambridge
Publication date: 2002
 
Lappe M., Giese M.A. (2002) Measurement of generalization fields for the recognition of biological motion. Vision Researech, 38, 1847-1858.
Publication date: 2002
 
Xie X., Giese M.A. (2002) Exact solution of the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent neural mechanisms for direction selectivity. Neurocomputing,44-46(C): 417-422.
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A. (2002) Learning recurrent neural models with minimal complexity from sparse neural data. NATO Workshop on Learning Theory and Practice, Leuven, July 2002. 
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A. (2002) Prototypes of biological movements in brains and machines. Biologically motivated Computer Vision; Springer, Berlin 157-170.
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A., Knappmeyer B., Bülthoff H.H. (2002) Automatic synthesis of sequences of human movements by linear combination of learned example patterns. Bülthoff H H, Lee S W, Poggio T, Wallraven C (eds.): Biologically motivated Computer Vision; Springer, Berlin 538-547.
Publication date: 2002
 
Ilg W., Giese M.A. (2002) Modeling of movement sequences based on hierarchical spatio-temporal correspondences of movement primitives. Bülthoff H H, Lee S W, Poggio T, Wallraven C (eds.): Biologically motivated Computer Vision; Springer, Berlin 528-537.
Publication date: 2002
 
Ilg W., Giese M.A. (2002) Modeling of movement sequences based on hierarchical spatial-temporal correspondences of movement primitives. In Würz RP, Lappe M (eds): Dynamic Perception; Infix, Berlin, 127-132.
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A., Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z. (2002) Learning of the discrimination of artificial complex biological motion. Dynamic Perception; Infix, Berlin, 133-138.
Publication date: 2002
 
Xie X., Giese M.A. (2002) Nonlinear dynamics of direction-selective recurrent neural media. Phys Rev E Stat Nonlin Soft Matter Phys. 65 (5 Pt 1):051904 (2002).
Publication date: 2002
 
Yu A.J., Poggio T., Giese M.A. (2002) Biophysiologically plausible implementations of maximum operation. Neural Computation, 14 (12) 2857-2881.
Publication date: 2002
 
Poggio T., Giese M.A. (2002) Neural mechanisms for the recognition of biological movements and actions AI Memo #AI Memo 2002-012/CBCL Paper #219. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Publication date: 2002
 
Xie X., Giese M.A. (2002) Exact solution of the nonlinear dynamics of recurrent neural mechanisms for direction selectivity AI Memo AI Memo #AI Memo 2002-013/CBCL Paper #220. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.
Publication date: 2002
 
Casile A., Giese M.A. (2002) Critical Features for biological Motion. 2nd Workshop on Biologically Motivated Computer Vision, Tübingen, Germany.
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A. (2002) Biologische Bewegung definiert durch Bewegung 2. In: Baumann M, Keinath A, Krems J F (eds.):  Abstracts zur 44. tagung Experimentell Arbeitender Psychologen. TU Chenitz, March, 2002, 23. 
Publication date: 2002
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2002) Learning of the discrimination of artificial complex biological motion. Perception; 31 Suppl. 117.
Publication date: 2002
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2002) Learning of artificial biological motion patterns. 32nd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience, Orlando, United States.
Publication date: 2002
 
Vaina L.M., Giese M.A. (2002) Neuronal plausibles Modell für die Erkennung biologischer Bewegug. In: Bülthoff H H, Gegenfurtner K R, Mallot H P, Ulrich R:  Beiträge zur 5. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. 110. 
Publication date: 2002
 
Ilg U., Churan J., Giese M.A. (2002) Biologische Bewegung definiert durch Bewegung 2. Ordnung. In: Bülthoff H H, Gegenfurtner K R, Mallot H P, Ulrich R:  Beiträge zur 5. Tübinger Wahrnehmungskonferenz. 121. 
Publication date: 2002
 
Jastorff J., Giese M.A. (2002) Neural model for the learning of biological motion. Perception; 31 Suppl.119.
Publication date: 2002
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2002) Role of learning in biological motion recognition. 2nd Workshop on Biologically Motivated Computer Vision, Tübingen, Germany.
Publication date: 2002
 
Jastorff J., Kourtzi Z., Giese M.A. (2002) Recognition of artificial complex biological motion generated by motion morphing. 5. Inderdisciplinary College 2002, Günne, Germany, March 2002.  POSTER AWARD.
Publication date: 2002
 
Vaina L.M., Giese M.A. (2002) Biological motion: why some motion-impaired stroke patients 'can' while others 'can't' recognize it ? A computational explanation.  Journal of Vision, 2, 332a.
Publication date: 2002
 
Giese M.A. (2002) Hierarchical neural model for the recognition of biological motion. Journal of Vision, 1(3).
Publication date: 2002
2001
 
 
Scheffler K., Seifritz E., Bilecen D., Venkatesan R., Hennig J., Deimling M., Haacke E.M. (2001) Detection of BOLD changes by means of a frequency-sensitive trueFISP technique: preliminary results. NMR Biomed. 14(7-8):490-6.
Publication date: December, 2001
A new method is introduced to detect magnetic field modulation arising from brain activation-induced BOLD effects. This approach uses a two-dimensional high-bandwidth, high-resolution conventional gradient-echo steady-state imaging sequence known as TrueFISP. The ability to visualize changes in oxygen saturation comes from the fact that the method is sensitive to the local field. As is well known, as the oxygen saturation changes so does the local field associated with the venous blood. We demonstrate that it is possible to visualize not only venous blood with this approach on a macroscopic level for major veins, but also to measure conventional oscillatory like signal changes during activated and resting states. Unfortunately, the method has two major drawbacks. First, a long TR is needed to maximize signal changes and, second, the field must be very well shimmed or numerous experiments need to be run to find the activation, as the signal response is sensitive to the starting frequency in the resting state. Nevertheless, these images can be compared directly with anatomical images collected with the same method without the need for distortion correction.
 
Schwarz C., Welsh J.P. (2001) Dynamic modulation of mossy fiber system throughput by inferior olive synchrony: a multielectrode study of cerebellar cortex activated by motor cortex. J. Neurophysiol. 86: 2489-2504.
Publication date: November, 2001
 
Hennig J., Scheffler K. (2001) Hyperechoes. Magn Reson Med. 46(1):6-12.
Publication date: September, 2001
A novel spin-echo-based refocusing strategy called a hyperecho mechanism is introduced by which the full coherence of magnetization submitted to a sequence of arbitrary RF pulses can be reinstalled. First implementations illustrate the potential of hyperecho formation-especially for Rapid Acquisition with Relaxation Enhancement (RARE) imaging, in which the full image intensity can be retrieved using a fraction of the RF power of a fully refocused sequence. The contribution of stimulated echo pathways to the hyperecho signal leads to an increased signal intensity at a given refocusing time for tissues with T(1) > T(2). For identical T(2) contrast, longer echo times have to be used. Further possibilities for using hyperechoes in gradient-echo sequences and for spin selection are discussed. Magn Reson Med 46:6-12, 2001.
 
Logothetis N.K., Pauls J., Augath M., Trinath T., Oeltermann A. (2001) Neurophysiological investigation of the basis of the fMRI signal. Nature. 412(6843):150-7.
Publication date: July, 2001
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is widely used to study the operational organization of the human brain, but the exact relationship between the measured fMRI signal and the underlying neural activity is unclear. Here we present simultaneous intracortical recordings of neural signals and fMRI responses. We compared local field potentials (LFPs), single- and multi-unit spiking activity with highly spatio-temporally resolved blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI responses from the visual cortex of monkeys. The largest magnitude changes were observed in LFPs, which at recording
sites characterized by transient responses were the only signal that significantly correlated with the haemodynamic response. Linear systems analysis on a trial-by-trial basis showed that the impulse response of the neurovascular system is both animal- and site-specific, and that LFPs yield a better estimate
of BOLD responses than the multi-unit responses. These findings suggest that the BOLD contrast mechanism reflects the input and intracortical processing of a given area rather than its spiking output.
 
Schwarz C., Möck M. (2001) Spatial arrangement of cerebro-pontine terminals. J. Comp. Neurol. 435: 418-432.
Publication date: June, 2001
 
Benda J., Bethge M., Henning M., Pawelzik K. , Herz A.V.M. (2001) Spike-frequency adaptation: phenomenological model and experimental tests Neurocomputing 38-40, 105-110
Publication date: June, 2001
 
Bethge M., Pawelzik K. (2001) Synchronous inhibition as a mechanism for unbiased selective gain control. Neurocomputing 38-40, 483-488
Publication date: June, 2001
 
Bartels A. (2001) The modularity of processing and perception in the human visual system. University College London, London, UK.
Publication date: June, 2001
 
Czubayko U., Sultan F., Thier P., Schwarz C. (2001) Two Types of Neurons in the Rat Cerebellar Nuclei as Distinguished by Membrane Potentials and Intracellular Fillings. J. Neurophysiol. 85: 2017-2029.
Publication date: May, 2001
 
Sato T., Murthy A., Thompson K.G., Schall J.D. (2001) Search efficiency but not response interference affects visual selection in frontal eye field. Neuron. 30(2):583-91.
Publication date: May, 2001
Two manipulations of a visual search task were used to test the hypothesis that the discrimination of a target from distractors by visually responsive neurons in the frontal eye field (FEF) marks the outcome and conclusion of visual processing instead of saccade preparation. First, search efficiency was reduced by increasing the similarity of the distractors to the target. Second, response interference was introduced by infrequently changing the location of the target in the array. Both manipulations increased reaction time, but only the change in search efficiency affected the time needed to select the target by visually responsive neurons. This result indicates that visually responsive neurons in FEF form an explicit representation of the location of the target in the image.